Volume 12, Number 3 (December 2011)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org

 

1.     MAHDI GHASEMI GAVABAR, JAHANFAR DANESHIAN, MOHAMMAD JAVAD SHAKOURI* AND SAEED MAFAKHERI [Effect of biological and chemical sources of nitrogen on rice yield]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 621-625 (2011). Department of Horticulture Langroud Branch, Islamic Azad University, Langroud, Iran*(e-mail : mj.shakori@gmail.com)

Abstract

            Azotobacter and azospirillum are nitrogen fixing bacteria which improve plant growth in association with cereals. This experiment was conducted at the International Research Institute of Rice, Rasht, Iran to study the effects of azotobacter, azospirillum and nitrogen fertilizer on rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Hashemi) yield production. The experimental design was factorial in the form of complete block design with three replications. Two factors of the experiment were biofertilizers in three levels (no biofertilizer, azospirillum, azotobacter and combination of azospirillum and azotobacter) and nitrogen fertilizer in three levels (0, 45 and 90 kg/ha). Results indicated that inoculating the roots with azospirillum and azotobacter significantly affected measured traits. Nitrogen fertilizer also significantly affected most of the measured traits but the interaction of biofertilizer × N fertilizer only affected grain yield, the number of active roots and the number of tillers per square meter.

 

2.    C. M. SUNIL, B. G. SHEKARA, P. ASHOKA, K. N. KALYANA MURTHY AND V. MADHUKUMAR [Effect of integrated weed management practices on aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 626-628 (2011). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

              Field studies were conducted on performance of different weed management techniques under aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) production system during kharif 2009 at Zonal Agricultural Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya. The major weed flora observed in the experimental field was Echinochloa colonum, Ageratum conyzoides, Commelina benghalensis, Celosia argentia, Cyperus iria and Cyperus rotundus. Pre-emergent application of bensulfuron methyl+pretilachlor (6.6 GR) @ 0.06+0.60 kg a. i./ha+one intercultivation at 40 DAS recorded higher grain yield (4804 kg/ha) and straw yield (5470 kg/ha). This was at par with bensulfuron methyl+pretilachlor (6.6 GR) @ 0.06+0.60 kg a. i./ha after sowing (4425 and 5020 kg/ha, respectively).

 

3.    C. M. SUNIL*, B. G. SHEKARA, P. ASHOKA, K. N. KALYANA MURTHY AND V. MADHUKUMAR [Effect of integrated weed management practices on nutrient uptake in aerobic rice]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 629-632 (2011). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : sunilcmuasb@gmail.com)

Abstract

              A field trial was carried out on red sandy loam soil during kharif2009 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya to investigate the effect of integrated weed management practices on nutrient uptake by weeds and aerobic rice at harvest. The results revealed that application of bensulfuron methyl+pretilachlor (6.6 GR) @ 0.06 +0.60 kg a. i./ha+one intercultivation at 40 DAS recorded significantly lower weed population and weed dry weight and higher grain yield. This was at par with bensulfuron methyl+pretilachlor (6.6 GR) @ 0.06+0.60 kg a. i./ha. The uptake of major nutrients by rice was higher in bensulfuron methyl+pretilachlor (6.6 GR) @ 0.06+0.60 kg a. i./ha+one intercultivation at 40 DAS and was at par with bensulfuron methyl+pretilachlor (6.6 GR) @ 0.06+0.60 kg a. i./ha. Higher nutrient uptake by weeds was recorded in unweeded check. There was a significant positive correlation between grain yield and total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by crop.

 

4.    MARZEIH KARIMI*, AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR AND BABAK BAHARI [Evaluation of bread wheat cultivars for chilling stress tolerance and their effective traits for higher grain yield]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 633-635 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, P.O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : marziehkarimi1385@gmail.com)

Abstract

              In this study, five cultivars Alvand, Omid, Shahriaar, Gascogene and Dyson, two local cultivars Sorkheh and Sepid, and three lines C-80-4, C-81-4 and C-81-14 were compared using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluated traits were number of days to spike producing and physiological ripening, grain filling period, grain yield, biomass, harvest index, plant height, 1000-grain weight, number of grains per spike and spike length. Analysis of variances showed that differences between cultivars and lines were highly significant for all traits except number of days to spike producing and straw yield. The highest and the lowest grain yield belonged to cultivars Gascogene and local cultivar Sorkheh, respectively (7730 and 3397 kg/ha). Cultivars Gascogene and Dyson showed more tolerance to coldness. Altogether, cultivars Gascogene and Alvand can be recommended in cold regions.

 

5.   MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* AND MOJTABA ALAVI FAZEL [Effect of interaction of liquid fertilizer and fungicide foliar application on yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 636-639 (2011). Department of AgronomyScience and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran
*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

            Fusarium head blight (FHB) (caused by Fusarium graminearum) is an impediment for winter wheat production in Iran. Experiment was conducted to determine the response of winter wheat to nitrauxin and fungicidefor control of disease. Experiment consisted a split-plot of winter wheat cultivars (Karaj 1 and Karaj 2) in main plots and fungicides (no nitrauxin and nitrauxin applied with fungicide) and control (without fungicide) treatments were in sub-plots. Cultivars differed significantly in their yield in response to interaction ofnitrauxin and fungicide. This interaction could control disease susceptibility. Thus, it was a document for yield improvement about 33.1% in Karaj 2 to 40.8% in Karaj 1 as compared with control treatments that were responsive to interaction of fungicide and nitrauxin, and indicated the important practices when disease could limit the production. Fungicide was effective in reducing the effects of FHB but could not complete control of disease. Liquid fertilizers can be an effective tool for high yield in winter wheat, if disease pressure is high. Combination of fungicide with liquid fertilizers is a common tool for disease tolerance.

 

6.    AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR AND MARZIEH KARIMI* [Generation mean analysis for relative water content and grain filling rate in bread wheat under drought stress condition]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 640-643 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : marziehkarimi1385@gmail.com)

Abstract

              Assessment of mode of gene action, inheritance and determination of the effective breeding strategy for improvement of physiological and morpho-physiological traits specifically in drought stress conditions is very important. Therefore, this study was conducted by using two drought susceptible and tolerant wheat cultivars. Cultivars Sakha8 (tolerant) and Pishtaz (susceptible) as parents alongwith F1, F2, BC1 and BC2  generations were sown in a randomized complete block design with three replications in drought stress conditions. Results of analysis of variance indicated significant difference between generations as well as degree of dominance revealed over-dominance for both the traits. Fitting simple additive-dominance model designated that this model was not able to account for changes of traits relative water content and mean of grain filling rate. It was revealed that m-d-h-i-j model for relative water content and m-d-h-i model for mean of grain filling rate were the best models. Estimation of heritability and mode of gene action indicated that selection for improvement of traits studied in stress condition and specifically in early generations had medium genetic gain. In conclusion, grain filling rate was better than relative water content as indirect selection criteria to improve plant grain yield in drought stress condition.

 

7.    MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* [Response of biofertilizers (Pseudomonas putida, Azospirillum lipoferum and Azotobacter chrococcum) to water deficit and grain nitrogen concentration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 644-647 (2011). Department of AgronomyScience and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              Investigating the relation of grain nitrogen concentration with water deficit and biofertilizers is a guide to improve agricultural practices. This study was conducted to find the relationship among Pseudomonas putida, Azospirillum lipoferum and Azotobacter chrococcum, grain N concentration, and low irrigation in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 2010. In P. putida and A. lipoferum treatments, grain N concentration had higher than A. chrococcum treatments, while grain yield was significantly less at 10% of soil moisture than maximum value (12%) of soil moisture. Grain yield after apparent water losses (12%) was increased by P. putida (2304 kg/ha) as compared with 1660 to 1155 kg/ha for A. lipoferum and A. chrococcum, respectively. Evaluation of grain yield and seed weight across biofertilizers indicated that while these traits increased within the critical ranges of water, strains can play an important role on yield production. These components are indicators of water deficiencies and N fertilization in wheat production.

 

8.    MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* [Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to water deficit as influenced by time of application of liquid fertilizer]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 648-651 (2011). Department of AgronomyScience and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              Appropriate management of liquid fertilizer is essential to provide adequate water for maximum production of yield and reduce the risk of environmental stresses. This study was conducted in 2010 to evaluate the effects of nitrauxin at three times [pre-plant seed foliar (SF), at the end of tillering (AET) and spiking stage (ASS) with irrigation water] with three sources (P. seudomonas, Azospirillum and Azotobacter)  in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Nitrauxin was applied about 4 l/ha at developmental stages with irrigation water and 2 l for 100 kg seed at sowing time with two rates of soil moisture (10 and 12%).The effect of times of application was determined by response of grain yield and yield components to water deficit. Application of nitrauxin at 12 and 10% of soil moisture had great effects at seed foliar and spiking stage with irrigation water as compared with AET. The response of grain yield, seed weight and grains/spike to nitrauxin was different among the applied times. Overall high available water affected by nitrauxin could enhance yield about 22.6% in SF and 29.1% in ASS with irrigation water than control treatments. Available water was affected by nitrauxin at the end of tillering but this low effect may be due to delayed uptake of water by plants.

 

9.    MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* [Management of salt stress through biofertilizers in wheat grown in alkaline soils]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 652-655 (2011). Department of AgronomyScience and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              Biofertilizers such as Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum and Bacillus coagulance can control abiotic stresses such as salt stress. However, limited information is available about the beneficial roles of these products; our research has focused on high NaCl in soil. This study determined the effects of biofertilizers for reducing the damages of NaCl. Our research was conducted in 2010 in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a greenhouse study by 7.5 kg rate plastic pots. Seedlings were treated by 0, 1500 and 3000 mg of NaCl/kg of soil within three interactions of strains [A. brasilense × A. lipoferum (I1), B. coagulance × A. brasilense (I2) and B. coagulance × A. lipoferum (I3)] that were inoculated  with seed  at pre-planting time. There were significant differences in plant production at different concentrations of NaCl and interaction of biofertilizers. At high and low content of soil Na (3000 and 1500 mg of NaCl/kg of soil), the yield of resistant plants was significantly higher than control treatments. The results showed that both I1 and I2 could increase the average of grain yield at high concentration of NaCl (3000 mg of NaCl/kg of soil) over 35.6 to 46.2% as compared with control (uninoculated) treatments, respectively. The effect of I3 on grain yield at high concentration of NaCl was lower than I1 and I2, and could enhance grain yield about 26.4% as compared with control plants. These findings supported previous work that showed that biofertilizers were effective in saline soils, and provided evidence that they were also effective in alkaline soils. Biofertilizers can become a useful tool for available nutrients in arid and semi-arid environments.

 

10.  AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR and MARZIEH KARIMI* [Determination of best genetic model for harvest index and biological yield of bread wheat under drought stress conditions]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 656-659 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : marziehkarimi1385@gmail.com)

Abstract

              Determination of the best genetic model, mode of inheritance, gene action and effective breeding strategy to improve the important morpho-physiological traits such as harvest index and biological yield is very important especially in drought stress conditions. Therefore, this study was conducted using two drought susceptible and tolerant wheat cultivars. Cultivars Sakha8 (tolerant) and Pishtaz (susceptible) as parents alongwith F1, F2, BC1 and BC2   generations were sown in a randomized complete block design with three replications in drought stress conditions. Results of analysis of variance indicated significant difference between generations for harvest index and biological yield. Degree of dominance revealed over-dominance for all the traits. Fitting the simple additive-dominance model demonstrated this as the best model to justify the genetic variations of harvest index and biological yield. Estimation of heritability and mode of gene action indicated that selection for improvement of traits studied in stress condition and specifically in early generations had medium genetic gain. In conclusion, the traits harvest index and biological yield had efficacy as indirect selection criteria for improvement of plant grain yield in drought stress condition.

 

11.  NASRIN IZADI AND AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR* [Effect of planting dates on some agronomic traits in sweet corn hybrids]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 660-667 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan  Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

Abstract

              This experiment was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the effect of two planting dates (July 14 and July 24) on yield of 12 sweet corn hybrids including Harvest Gold, E.X, Merit, Absolute, Revel, Basin, Shaker, Diva, Rival, Temptation, Shimmer and Chase in a farm located in the East of Esfahan (Iran). Delayed sowing date had significant effect on ear length and cob yield, but didn’t cause significant influence on ear diameter, cob diameter, grain yield, ear by husk yield and ear by husk harvest index. Ear length diminished but cob yield enhanced at second date. Shaker produced maximum ear by husk yield in July 24 planting date with mean 30890 kg/ha. Rival generated the most ear by husk harvest index at first sowing date (65.76%) and Absolute had the highest grain yield in July 14 planting date with mean (2519 kg/ha).

 

12.  NASRIN IZADI AND AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR* [Physiological response of sweet corn hybrids to planting dates]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 668-674 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan  Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

Abstract

              This experiment was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the effect of two planting dates (July 14 and July 24) on yield of 12 sweet corn hybrids including Harvest Gold, E.X, Merit, Absolute, Revel, Basin, Shaker, Diva, Rival, Temptation, Shimmer and Chase in a farm located in the East of Esfahan (Iran). Delayed sowing date had increasing significant effect on seed depth, but didn’t cause significant influence on seed length, grain weight per shrub, kernel yield, seed harvest index, ear without husk yield and ear without husk harvest index. Absolute and Revel produced the highest grain yield and seed harvest index in July 14 planting date with mean (2519 kg/ha) and 7.5%, respectively. Also Shaker and Diva had the most ear without husk yield (21560 kg/ha) and harvest index (50.60%) at second and first planting dates, respectively.

 

13.  NASSRIN SAFYAN, MOHAMMAD REZA NADERIDARBAGHSHAHI*, HOMAYOUN  DARKHAL AND MAJID SHAMS [Effect of foliar application of micro elements on growth and yield of the corn]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 675-679 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : mnaderi@khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

              The micronutrients play an important role in increasing crop yield. As the majority of soils in Iran are calcareous and therefore lack of micronutrients in these soils is a regular problem. This investigation was conducted to study the effects of foliar nutrition on yield of maize hybrid “KSC 302” in the Research site of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch in 2009. In this study, nine foliar sprayed micronutrient treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replications were examined. Treatments included foliar sprayed iron, zinc, copper, boron, manganese, iron+zinc, copper+ manganese, iron+zinc+copper+manganese and pure water as control. Concentrations of elements (mg/l) were iron : 3, zinc : 4, copper : 5, manganese : 2.5, boron : 1.5, iron+zinc : 3, 4, respectively, copper+manganese : 2.5, 5, respectively and iron+zinc+ copper+manganese : 3, 4, 5, 2.5, respectively. The results showed that the effect of foliar spraying on the crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, number of grains in rows, 1000-grain weight and grain yield was significant, but it didn’t affect number of rows per ear. The highest number of rows per ear, grains in row and yield were related to iron+zinc foliar sprayed treatment and the highest 1000-grain weight belonged to copper+manganese. The lowest and the highest means of the crop growth rate and net assimilation rate belonged to control and zinc treatment, respectively. Also, the highest and lowest mean number of rows per ear belonged to iron+zinc and iron+zinc+copper+ manganese, respectively, but with no significant differences. According to the results of this study, foliar sprayed micronutrient elements specifically iron and zinc play an important role in corn yield increase.

 

14.  BURHAN KARA* [Effect of seed size and shape on grain yield and some ear characteristics of maize]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 680-685 (2011). Department of Field Crops  Faculty of Agriculture, Süleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta, Turkey *(e-mail : burhankara@sdu.edu.tr)

Abstract

 

              The study was carried out with the aim to determine the effects of seed size and shape on field performance of maize. In the study, three different kernel sizes/shapes 4.5-5.5 mm (SF and SR), 5.5-6.5 mm (MF and MR) and 6.5= mm (LF and LR) were used. Grain yield and ear characteristics (ear diameter, ear length, the number of kernels per ear, ear weight, 1000-kernel weight and hectoliter weight) were significantly affected by seed size. Effect of seed shape on examined characteristics was non-significant. Effect on grain yield and ear charasteristics of large seeds were higher compared to medium and small seeds. The results showed that the grain yield (the highest grain yield 12.29 and 11.71 t/ha was determined from LR seeds in both the years) was higher in seeds with large size/shape in corn. The maximum ear diameter (39.0 and 40.7 mm, respectively) and ear length (22.3 and 22.7 cm, respectively) were obtained from LR seeds in both the years. The highest number of kernels per ear was determined from LF (664.7 grain) in first year and LR seeds (672.3 grain) in second year. The highest ear weight was obtained from LF seeds (254.0 and 249.0 g, respectively) in both the years. The highest 1000-grain weight was determined in LR (329.3 g) in first year and LF seeds (330.0 g) in second year. The maximum hectoliter weight was obtained from LF (79.7 kg) in first year and LR seeds (78.3 kg) in second year.

 

15.  MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* AND SHAHRAM LAK [Mitigation of water deficit and rate of malon dialdehyde in corn (Zea mays L.) in response to different Azotobacter chrococcum strains]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 686-689 (2011). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              Azotobacter had positive effect on grain yield by decreasing the rates of chemical markers and destructive effects of water deficit. Research was conducted to determine the changes in the rates of malon dialdehyde (MDA) in the leaf tissue by Azotobacter strains at water deficit condition in corn [Zea mays (L.) var 704]. Strains (15, 35 and 38) were used before planting at 10 and 12% of soil moisture. Cellular electrical conductivity (CEC) and MDA were affected by Azotobacter strains at water deficit condition. Grain yield under 12 and 10% of soil moisture was increased about 26.1 and 21.4% than control treatments by strain 38, respectively. The results showed that MDA and CEC decreased about 12.6 and 28.5% at 12, 8.3 and 20.2% at 10% of soil moisture by strain 38, respectively. Yield and the rates of MDA and CEC were affected by15 and 35 strains, but this effect was lower than strain 38. This indicated that low rates of MDA and CEC caused higher grain yield than control treatments affected by Azotobacter strains at water deficit condition.

 

16.  MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* AND SHAHRAM LAK [Management of antioxidant enzymes by Azospirillum strains for corn production in dry regions of Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 690-693 (2011). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              Water is an important and costly input for corn (Zea mays L.) production. A research was conducted to evaluate the effects of Azospirillum strains on antioxidant enzymes for management of water deficit in 2010. Interaction of Azospirillum strains [A. brasilense × A. lipoferum (IA1), A. brasilense × A. irakiens (IA2) and A. lipoferum × A. irakiens (IA3)] was applied at pre-plant time and moisture of soil was estimated by gypsum block. Water deficit stress could be regulated by antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) affected by Azospirillum treatments. Mean yield was increased across all strains about 28.3 to 24.6% inIA1, 21.7 to 17.3% in IA2 and 16.6 to 11.9% in IA3 at 12 and 10% of soil moisture, respectively. The rates of SOD and GPX were higher in IA1 than IA2 and IA3. This indicated that potential of yield depended on antioxidant enzymes due to applicationof Azospirillum. Development of plant by Azospirillum with high rates of SOD and GPX at water deficit condition, is an important strategy for high production as compared with common irrigation in dry regions.

 

17.  MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* [Effect of biofertilizers on maize grown under water deficit conditions in dry regions of Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 694-697 (2011). Department of AgronomyScience and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              Interaction ofbiofertilizers had positive effects in maize (Zea mays L.) production. Three interactions of strains such as P. putida × A. lipoferum (I1), P. putida × A. chrococcum (I2)and A. lipoferum × A. chrococcum (I3) were applied by two contents of soil moisture (12 and 10%) in 2010. The objective was to improve the grain yield, by the effectsof biofertilizers under low and high soil moisture. In I1, grain yield from 10 to 12% of soil moisture was 11343.06 and 11951.52 kg/ha, respectively. These values were 21% (I2) to 25% (I1) higher than control treatments. The increased yield by I1 and I2 was associated with decrease in water deficit damages during the growing season and increased yield components. Response of grain yield to I3 in comparison with free inoculation (control), from 10 to 12% of soil moisture was 10435.61 and 11178.96 kg/ha (I3), and 9561.22 and 9074.45 kg/ha (control), respectively. This study indicated that yield in response to the interaction ofbiofertilizers was affected by low moisture of soil. In this study, it was observed that interaction of biofertilizers P. putida × A. lipoferum (I1) could increase seed weight and grains/ear in comparison with other interactions.

 

18.  ALI SOLEYAMANI* AND MOHAMAD HESAM SHAHRAJABIAN [Influence of planting date and plant density on grain and biological yields of barley cultivars]. Res. on Crops12 (3): 698-700 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran
*(e-mail : a_Soleymani@Khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

              In order to evaluate the effects of different planting dates and plant densities on grain yield and yield components of elite barley lines, an investigation was conducted in 2007 in Isfahan Agriculture Research Station. Strip split plot layout within a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Main plots were planting dates (October 2, November 1 and November 21), sub-plots were plant densities (300, 350 and 400 plants/m2) and sub-sub plots were cultivars (MB-79-4, MB-80-9, MB-80-16, D5 and Karoon × Kavir). Planting date had significant effect on leaf dry matter, spike dry matter, total dry matter, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index of barley. Grain and biological yields were significantly influenced by interaction between planting date and plant density. Cultivar also had significant effect on stem dry matter, grain yield and biological yield. The interaction between plant density and cultivar had no significant effect on experimental characteristics, but planting date and cultivar interaction had significant influence on leaf dry matter, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. Maximum grain and biological yields were obtained at the first planting date. The highest grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were related to 400 plants/m2. The maximum grain and biological yields were obtained by M-80-16 and Karoon × Kavir lines. October 2 was suitable for producing kernel and forage yield, but plantation on November 1 was just appropriate for producing kernel. We recommended 400 plants/m2 and MB-80-16 (for kernel production) under condition similar to this experiment.

 

19.  NEELAM, V. P. SINGH AND ANIL KUMAR [Quality and economics of pearl millet as influenced by different nutrient management practices under rainfed condition]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 701-703 (2011). Department of AgronomyCCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

Abstract

 

              A field experiment was conducted in Hisar (Haryana), India during 2008-09 kharif season to determine the effect of different nutrient management practices on quality and economics of pearl millet under rainfed conditions. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer (60 kg N/ha+40 kg P2O5/ha) gave the highest N and P contents and their uptake in both grain and stover. Higher gross (Rs. 43415), net returns (Rs. 23884) and B : C ratio (2.22) of pearl millet were recorded with RDF (60 kg N+40 kg P2O5) followed by T9 treatment (40 kg N+30 kg PP2O5+biomix). Gross and net returns in T10 were Rs. 21198 and 19731 higher over the control (Rs. 22217 and 4153), respectively

 

20.  AMIR HOSSEINN NAYERAIN-JAZY, MOHAMMAD REZA NADERI* AND ABDOLMAJID REZAEI [Effects of irrigation regimes and foliar application of micronutrients on yield and fiber quality characteristics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar N 200]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 704-709 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant BreedingKhorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran*(e-mail : mnaderi@khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

              Cotton is one of the most important and strategically crops all over the world especially in Iran which is grown to use both fiber and oil. In improving management of cotton cultivation, irrigation, nutrition and their interaction are very important. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soil moisture, foliar application of micronutrients and their interaction on yield and quality characteristics of cotton fiber at the Research Farm of Isfahan Islamic Azad University (Khorasgan Branch) in a split plot layout with three replications in 2009. Irrigation treatments based on 80 and 160 mm cumulative evaporation from evaporation pan class A were regarded as the main factor and without, two times and three times foliar application of micronutrients were applied as sub-factor. The traits including unginned cotton (lint+cotton seed) yield, lint yield and some of lint qualitative traits such as mean length, uniformity index, elongation, strength, fineness and short fiber index were calculated and analysis of variance was performed for each one of the traits. The results showed that the effect of irrigation on above all traits was significant at the 1% probability level. Drought stress (irrigation based on 160 mm cumulative evaporation) caused 7% increase in unginned cotton yield. In fact, much moisture stimulated vegetative growth and delayed reproductive development, as a result unginned cotton has decreased. Also, a similar result was obtained about the characteristics above. Three times foliar application of micronutrients than the control increased both unginned cotton and lint yield about 8% and improved all qualitative fiber traits. Maximum and minimum lint yield equal to 87.96 and 73.67 g/m2 was obtained in association with irrigation based on 80 mm cumulative evaporation with three times foliar application of micronutrients and irrigation based on 160 mm cumulative evaporation without foliar application of micronutrients, respectively.

 

21.  D. D. MANKAR AND S. M. NAWLAKHE [Root and shoot growth study and its impact on yield of sugarcane as influenced by the planting geometry and irrigation methods]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 710-714 (2011). Dr. P. D. K. V. Agronomy Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur (M. S.), India

Abstract

 

              A field  experiment was conducted for the two years during suru season at Sugarcane Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India. The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of six combinations of three planting geometry and two irrigation methods. The number of shoots/m2 at 180 DAP and number of millable canes at harvest were significantly reduced by the ring geometry compared to conventional but paired planting was at par during both the years. However, the number of functional leaves, leaf area and leaf area index at harvest during both the years showed significant reduction due to both paired and ring planting geometry. The shoot fresh weight, mean millable cane weight and absolute growth rate (AGR) of dry matter during 300-345 days growth period were not influenced significantly by planting geometry. But ring geometry showed maximum and significantly higher fractional water content at 345 days. The root depth recorded at harvest was not influenced significantly during both the years. The root spread at harvest was non-significant during first year, but during second year the root spread was significantly reduced by ring as well as paired geometry. The root volume, root fresh weight and root dry weight were reduced significantly by paired geometry as well as ring geometry compared to conventional planting. The millable cane yield was significantly lowered in paired planting in first season as well as in pooled analysis, while in second season both methods were at par. In first year paired row planting recorded 23.5% reduction in yield and when results were pooled reduction was 12.69%. Ring planting during both the years as well as pooled average showed significant reduction in yield than conventional planting. In respect of irrigation methods, number of shoots at 180 DAP, number of millable canes, number of functional leaves, AGR at 300-345 days interval, cane diameter and mean millable cane weight were not influenced significantly during both the years. Plant height, millable height and number of internodes at harvest were significantly increased by the drip irrigation over furrow irrigation during first year but significantly reduced by drip method during second year. All the root parameters studied showed numerically higher values due to drip method during both the years but the differences were not significant. During the first year the millable cane yield was not influenced significantly due to drip method. However, during second season cane yield was significantly reduced in drip method compared to  furrow method.

 

 

22.  MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* [Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield and activity of chemical markers in response to sodium chloride and PGPRs]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 715-718 (2011). Department of AgronomyScience and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              A greenhouse experiment was conducted in 2010 in a saline soil in Karaj to determine the yield and activity of chemical markers in response to different concentrations of NaCl (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg of NaCl/kg of soil) and PGPRs (Pseudomonas putida × Azospirillum lipoferum × Azotobacter chrococcum) in two oil rapeseed cultivars (Zarfam and Medna). Twenty-four treatments were tested in a factorial design with four replications in 7.5 kg plastic pots. The response of seed yield and other parameters to PGPRs was positive, but the rates of NaCl had negative effect on chemical markers [Malon dialdehyde (MDA) and Dityrosine (Di-Ty)]. Seed yield was increased by PGPRs at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg of NaCl/kg of soil as compared with control (uninoculated) treatments. Seed yield was maximized at the rate of 0 mg Na/kg soil in resistant plants. In comparison to cultivars, Zarfam had higher production and lower rates of MDA and Di-Ty at high concentrations of sodium chloride than Medna. There was a significant increase of MDA and Di-Ty in the leaf tissue due to NaCl. The effects of NaCl were high in control treatments. This reaction was due to decrease in MDA and Di-Ty by PGPRs in cultivars. In conclusion, cultivars need to PGPRs for optimum seed yield production in this study at high concentrations of NaCl, but high yield in Zarfam related to low rates of markers.

 

23.  MOHAMMAD ALI AMINJAFARI, AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR* AND MOHAMMAD REZA NADERIDARBAGHSHAHI [Effect of drought stress at different growth stages on yield and oil percentage of winter canola cultivars grown in Mahyar region, Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 719-722 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

Abstract

 

              In order to evaluate seed yield and oil percentage of winter canola cultivars in semi-arid region of Iran, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Isfahan Agriculture Research Station, Mahyar in 2010. A split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The main plots included four irrigation levels (Complete irrigation, disruption of irrigation from stem elongation stage, disruption of irrigation from flowering stage and disruption of irrigation from pod formation stage), and sub-plots were six canola cultivars, namely, OKAPI, MODENA, LICORD, ZARFAM, SLM046 and OPERA). Irrigation had significant influence on number of days from plantation until stem elongation, and complete flowering, duration of flowering and physiological maturation. Plant height, the number of secondary branches, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and oil percentage were significantly influenced by disruption of irrigation. Cultivar also had significant effect on all experimental characteristics, expect of the number of pods per plant. Irrigation and cultivar interaction also had significant influence on the number of secondary branches, 1000-seed weight and oil percentage. In all experimental characteristics, by increasing drought stress, the significant decrease was shown. Therefore, complete irrigation is needed at all growth stages to maintain and enhance crop yield. Irrigation is critical during flowering phase in order to improve seed yield and oil percentage. The highest seed yield and oil percentage were obtained in Modena.

 

24.  ALI SOLEYMANI* AND MOHAMAD HESAM SHAHRAJABIAN [Effect of irrigation intervals and plant density on yield and yield components of nuts sunflower in Isfahan region, Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 723-727 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

 

              In order to study the effect of irrigation intervals and plant densities on yield and yield components of nuts sunflower, an experiment was conducted in 2009 at Research Farm, Mahmoodabad, Isfahan. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Main plots were irrigation intervals (8, 13, 18 and 23 days) and sub-plots were plant densities (6, 8, 10 and 12 plants/m2). The effect of irrigation interval was significant on plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, biological yield and harvest index. The effect of plant density was significant on plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, biological yield and harvest index. The highest plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, number of grains per head, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and biological yield were achieved in eight days irrigation interval, and the highest head diameter, number of grains per head, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and harvest index were related to 8 plants/m2. Results showed that eight days irrigation interval and 8 plants/m2 were suitable for this variety of nuts sunflower.

 

25.  MEHDI SHAYANFAR, ALI SOLEYMANI* AND MOHAMAD HESAM SHAHRAJABIAN [Effect of plant densities on solar radiation absorption and depreciation, leaf area index and crop growth rate of different cultivars of sunflower]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 728-730 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

              In order to evaluate the effects of cultivars and plant densities on solar radiation absorption, solar radiation depreciation, leaf area index (LAI) and crop growth rate (CGR), an experiment was conducted in 2006-07 at Cultural Experimental and Research Center in Esfahan. A factorial layout within randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The experimental treatments were three new cultivars of sunflower Sup. Armky-19 (Sup. A), S1 Re85 (S1R) and Sup. Prrog.sh-85 (Sup. P) and four plant densities 8, 10, 12 and 14 plants per m2 in 60 cm interval rows. Plant density had significant effect on plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, LAI, total dry matter, solar radiation absorption, solar radiation depreciation and CGR. The effect of cultivars also was significant on plant height, head diameter, total dry matter, solar radiation absorption and CGR. The interaction between plant density and cultivar had significant influence on plant height and head diameter. The highest LAI, total dry matter, solar radiation absorption, solar radiation depreciation and CGR were obtained in 14 plants per m2. The maximum LAI, total dry matter and solar radiation absorption were related to Sup. A. Sup. A also obtained the maximum CGR but there was no significant difference in CGR between Sup. A and Sup. P.

 

26.  B. A. LAWAL*, G. O. OBIGBESAN AND E. A. AKINRINDE [Effects of rates and methods of boron (B) application on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productivity]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 731-738 (2011). Department of Agronomy Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso, Nigeria *(e-mail :  lawalba@gmail.com)

Abstract

              Crops show different hunger sign(s) to reflect deficiency symptom(s) of a nutrient element; method of application may also affect uptake and consequently the severity of the displayed symptom(s). Experiments were, therefore, carried out to determine optimum requirement, method of application and deficiency symptom(s) of boron (B) in sunflower production. A pot and a field experiments were carried out to determine the optimum rate of B and its method of application required for high productivity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and maximal oil yield. Acid washed white sand was used as supporting medium for sunflower seedlings growth in a green house; this was to ensure that sunflower planted feed on supplied nutrient solution only. The practice authenticates observed deficiency symptom(s) of sunflower to B. Sunflower seedlings were fed with complete nutrient solution under six levels of B 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mg B/kg white sand. On the field, four B levels 0, 400, 800 and 1200 g B/ha were applied using foliar and soil application methods. From two weeks after planting (WAP), influence of different levels of B applied was significant (P£0.01) on all the agronomic parameters of sunflower seedlings with 0.4 mg B/kg white sand observed as the optimum level. Sunflower seedlings treated with 0 mg B/kg white sand have scattered apical bud with characteristic bronze coloured young leaves. The ratio of shoot to root weight was 23.8 with 10 and 9 mg/kg B content in the shoot and root, respectively, at 4 WAP. At optimum level, however, the ratio was 3.23 with 46 and 31 mg/kg B content in the shoot and root, respectively. Both the levels and the methods of application of B on the field influenced all the yield parameters significantly except seed oil content which was 45% on average. The content was higher than in the previous year value which was 36%, possibly due to lower temperature during seed formation period. Significantly higher oil yield of 1428.19 l/ha was obtained when 400 g B/ha was soil applied.

 

27.  ALI SOLEYMANI* AND MOHAMAD HESAM SHAHRAJABIAN [Effect of planting dates and different levels of nitrogen on seed yield and yield components of safflower grown after harvesting of corn in Isfahan, Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 739-743 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

 

              In order to determine suitable planting date and level of nitrogen, an experiment was conducted in 2008-09 at Experimental Field, Mahmoodabad region, Isfahan. The split plot design based on completely randomized block design with three replications was used. The main plots were planting dates, Sept. 21, Oct. 12, Oct. 22 and Nov. 1. The sub-plots were different levels of nitrogen 80, 95, 105 and 120 kg N/ha. The results indicated that planting date had significant effect on plant height, distance of first branch from earth, number of secondary branches, number of heads, number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight and seed yield. The nitrogen had significant effect on plant height, distance of first branch from earth, number of secondary branches, number of heads, number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight and seed yield. The interaction between nitrogen and planting date had no significant effect on plant height, distance of first branch from earth, number of seeds per head and 1000-seed weight. The maximum plant height, distance of first branch from earth, number of heads, number of seeds, 1000-seed weight and seed yield were obtained in Nov. 1 planting date. The suitable plant height, number of seeds per head and 1000-seed weight grain were obtained in application of 105 kg N/ha. Ultimately, plantation of this variety with application of 105 kg N/ha and planting date of Nov. 1 was recommended to Isfahan farmers.

 

28.  MOHAMAD REZA NAGHAVI*, AMIR HOSSEIN SHIRANIRAD, MOHAMAD ALI BAGHESTANI AND MOHAMAD REZA NADERI [Influence of plant populations on seed yield and oil percentage of different cultivars of safflower in semi-arid region of Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 744-747 (2011). Department of Agronomy Group Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University,Takestan, Iran *(e-mail : mohamad.rezan@gmail.com)

Abstract

              Benefiting from selecting the appropriate cultivars is considered as one of the economical exploitation methods from oil seed crops. So, in order to evaluate the effects of plant density and cultivar on yield and yield components of safflower in Esfahan, an experiment was done as a factorial layout within randomized complete block design with four replications. The experimental treatments included four cultivars (Goldasht, Esfahan (Mahali), Zenderod and Mexican) and three plant populations (30, 50 and 70 plants per m2). Plant density had significant influence on total number of heads, number of seeds per main and secondary heads and seed yield. The effect of cultivar was significant on total number of heads, number of seeds per main and secondary heads, seed yield and 1000-seed weight. All experimental parameters were significantly influenced by interaction between plant density and cultivar. On the basis of the results, the highest seed yield (4773 kg/ha) was related to 70 plants per m2. Mahali also had obtained the maximum seed yield. So, cultivation of Mahali and 70 plants per m2 was recommended to Esfahan farmers.

 

29.  AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR* AND BABAK BAHARI [Effect of sowing dates on grain yield and oil content of spring cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 748-751 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

Abstract

 

              In order to determine sowing date effects on grain yield and oil content of spring safflower cultivars, this study was conducted in Kabootarabad Research Site of Isfahan Agriculture Organization located in east of Isfahan, in 2009. The experimental layout was split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Eight sowing dates (March 5, March 19, April 4, April 20, May 5, May 21, June 5 and June 21) were main plot levels and cultivars  Arak-2811, Isfahan-14 and IL-111 were sub-plots. Traits like capitulum number in plant, grain number in capitulum, 1000-grain number, grain yield and oil content were affected by sowing date and decreased with delay in sowing. Cultivar Isfahan-14 produced the most grain yield in second sowing date, whereas Arak-2811 had the least grain yield in eighth sowing date. Adaptation of cultivar Isfahan-14 with regional climatic factors was the reason of its superiority and sowing the spring safflower as soon as possible after freezing risk removal is recommended.

 

30.  SOHELI KOBRAEE* AND KEYVAN SHAMSI [Determination of zinc, iron and manganese concentration and partitioning during reproductive stages of soybean grown under field conditions]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 752-760 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran *(e-mail : kobraee@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              In order to investigate some of micronutrient applications on micronutrient content in plant parts during growth and development stages in soybean (Glycine max L.), we conducted the experiment at field conditions at Kermanshah, Iran. Three levels of zinc (Zn0, Zn20 and Zn40 as ZnSO4), iron (Fe0, Fe25 and Fe50 as FeSO4) and manganese (Mn0, Mn20 and Mn40 as MnSO4) were applied. The results showed that micronutrients in the plant parts decreased from R1 to R8. Therefore, the highest and lowest elements content in plant tissue was obtained at R1 and R8 stages, respectively. In addition, Zn, Fe and Mn concentration in leaf, stem, pod and seed at different growth stages of plant were lower than the check treatment. The results at both the years indicated that leaf and stem Fe concentration in soybean decreased faster than the other elements.

 

31.  SOHEIL KOBRAEE* AND KEYVAN SHAMSI [Measurement of zinc, iron and manganese ratios in different parts of soybean plant]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 761-765 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran *(e-mail : kobraee@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              The effects of zinc, iron and manganese on their ratio in stem, leaf, pod and seed at reproductive growth stages of soybean (Glycine max L.) were studied in field and pot experiments. Three rates of zinc (0, 4 and 8 mg Zn/kg as ZnSO4.7H2O), iron (0, 4 and 8 mg Fe/kg as FeSO4) and manganese (0, 15 and 30 mg Mn/kg as MnSO4.H2O) in pot experiment, and zinc (0, 20 and 40 kg/ha from ZnSO4 source), iron (0, 25 and 50 kg/ha from FeSO4 source) and manganese (0, 25 and 40 kg/ha from MnSO4 source) in field conditions were used. The results showed that zinc, iron and manganese were transferred from the stem to leaves when that increasing soybean old and approach to maturity stage (R8). With application of Zn, Fe and Mn fertilizers, [Zn]leaf/[Zn]stem ratio increased from the R1 to R8. In contrast, [Zn]pod/[Zn]stem ratio was decreased from R6 to R8 growth stages. Manganese fertilization causing that Fe transferring was increased from the stem, leaf and pod to seeds. Iron ratio in leaf and stem decreased from R1 to R3 growth stages, and then increased thereto for R6 stage. A similar trend was observed in case of [Zn]pod/[Zn]stem and [Mn]pod/[Mn]stem ratios from the R6 to R8 growth stages. With manganese fertilization [Mn]seed/[Mn]stem, [Mn]seed/[Mn]leaf and [Mn]seed/[Mn]pod increased sharply. The largest of degrees translocation factor belonged to manganese than the zinc and iron.

 

32.  S. U. NEMADE, K. R. CHAVHAN AND N. D. PARLAWAR [Economics of different herbicides for weed control in soybean in combination with cultural method of weed control]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 766-768 (2011). Zonal Agricultural Research Station, CVZ, Yavatmal-445 001 (Maharashtra), India

Abstract

              A field experiment was conducted at farm of Zonal Agricultural Research Station, CVZ, Yavatmal (Maharashtra) during 2007-08 to 2009-10 to study the economics of different herbicides for weed control in soybean in combination with cultural method of weed control. From three years’ pooled data, it was revealed that weed-free check (2 hoeings+2 hand-weedings) recorded highest gross monetary returns, net monetary returns and benefit : cost ratio. Among integrated treatments, these parameters were numerically highest in post-emergence application of  imazethapyr @ 75 g a. i./ha  at 10 DAS+one hoeing at 25 DAS (T6). Cost of cultivation was lowest in unweeded control, whereas highest in weed-free check (T9).

 

33.  MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* [Response of soybean to salt stress as influenced by different Bacillus strains]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 769-772 (2011). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              Saline soils can reduce the yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] due to the effects on available water and nutrients. Furthermore, decline of yield can occur due to low activity of bacteries at rhizosphere zone in high-sodium soils. A study was conducted in 2010 by 7.5 kg rate plastic pots to examine the relationships among different NaCl concentrations, and response of soybean grain yield to Bacillus strains in a greenhouse condition. Seedlings were treated by 0, 1200 and 2400 mg of NaCl/kg of soil and strains (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium)had positive effect on soybean growth. The yield declined by NaCl stress (control), more than resistant plants (pre-plant treated with Bacillus strains). The great percentage of high soybean yield and seed weight was observed about 24 to 39% for B. megaterium and B. subtilis at high concentration of NaCl (2400 mg/kg of soil) than control treatments, respectively .The resistant densities were more strongly to NaCl stress than control treatments. This explained the ability of Bacillus strains to maintain water and nutrients at high concentration of NaCl.

 

34.   MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA* [Influence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Azospirillum strains on activity of antioxidant enzymes in soybean (Glycine max L.) under salt stress condition]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 773-777 (2011). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

Abstract

 

               The issue of antioxidant enzymes has much attention in saline soils in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] because salt stress is often limited by Azospirillum strains. In this work, enhanced activity of SOD (Superoxide dismutase) and GPX (Glutathione peroxidase) by interaction of Bradyrhizobium japonicum × Azospirillum lipoferum (I1) and Bradyrhizobium japonicum × Azospirillum irakiens (I2) was investigated as strategies for improved yield of soybean at high rates of NaCl in a greenhouse study. Seedlings were treated by 0, 800,1600 and 2400 mg of NaCl/kg of soil. The effects of I1 and I2 on activity of SOD and GPX, grain yield, seeds/pod and seed weight were examined during the 2010 soybean growing season. The experimental design was factorial based on a completely randomized design (CRD) at 7.5 kg rate plastic pots. The results showed that I1 was more effective on activity of antioxidant enzymes than I2 at high concentration of NaCl (2400 mg of NaCl/kg of soil). The values of SOD on average in I2, 20.4 to 14.2% in I1, 31.3 to 23.6% and 21.4 to 12.3% (I2) and 25.8 to 16.6% (I1) for GPX, higher than control treatments, at 800-2400 mg of NaCl/kg soil, respectively. In comparison, in I1 and I2 the yield was 37.6 to 28.9% and 31.4 to 23.7% higher than control treatments at 1600 and 2400 mg of NaCl per kg soil, respectively. However, these effects of I1 and I2 on antioxidant enzymes could create high yield in response to the damages of NaCl.

 

35.   K. GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI* AND B. ROOZBEH [Changes in seed quality of chickpea cultivars under salinity stress]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 778-782 (2011). Department of Plant Eco-physiology Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : golezani@gmail.com)

Abstract

              A factorial experiment on the basis of RCB design with three replications was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the effects of salt stress (S1, S2 and S3 : control, 5 and 10 dS/m NaCl, respectively) on seed quality of three chickpea cultivars (ILC and Jam from kabuli type and Pirooz from desi type) at different stages of pod filling. Seed viability and germination rate of chickpea cultivars increased with enhancing seed weight on the mother plant under both saline and non-saline conditions. However, seed weight and consequently viability percentage and germination rate decreased as salinity increased. Reduction in seed weight due to salinity was closely related with low pod filling rate.Means of maximum seed viability and rate of germination for seeds produced under control and moderate salinity were not significantly differed, but these traits for seeds produced under high salinity were significantly lower than those for control. Seed quality of Pirooz was generally lower than that of ILC and Jam. Variation of seed quality among chickpea cultivars was attributed to differences in genetic constitution. Thus, the quality of chickpea seeds could be influenced by both genotype and salinity stress.

 

36.   SAEED SAEEDIPOUR* [Allelopathic effects of Xanthium strumarium L. on germination and growth of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 783-788 (2011). Department of Agronomy Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran*(e-mail : saeeds79@gmail.com)

Abstract

              In laboratory and greenhouse studies, the aqueous extracts of Xanthium strumarium L. drastically inhibited the germination and seedling growth of mung bean. Mungbean plumules were less sensitive to allelopathic effects than radicles. Increasing concentrations of extract severely inhibited the shoot growth. Comparison to soil incorporated dry mix (root, stem, leaf and flowers) residues, the soil surface applied dry mix residues drastically inhibited the mungbean germination and seedling growth in pots. This study indicated that cocklebur had a clear allelopathic effect on mungbean germination and seedling growth even though the extent of inhibition was severe under laboratory than greenhouse conditions. From practical point of view, the identification of weeds with potential pool of allelochemicals and characterization of their adverse effects on germination and retarded growth of crops during early development stages and finally on the commercial yield is highly recommended.

 

37.    MARZIEH KARIMI* AND AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR [Determination of effective traits for seed yield in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm]. Res. on Crops12 (3): 789-791 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : marziehkarimi1385@gmail.com)

Abstract

               Determination of the effective traits on seed yield as indirect selection criteria is very important in common bean improvement. Because of that 50 common bean genotypes were cultivated in randomized complete block design. Correlation analysis revealed that all the traits studied correlated positively and significantly with seed yield. Amongst traits harvest index, biological yield, number of nodules per plant and per cent of nitrogen fixation entered to regression model and accounted for 98% of seed yield variation. Path analysis indicated that harvest index and biological yield had considerable and positive direct effect on seed yield. Therefore, these traits recommend as the best indirect selection criteria for improvement of seed yield especially in early generations.

 

38.   KULAPATI HIPPARAGI, J. NARAYANA, B. CHINNAPPA AND ANILKUMAR TALAGERI [Production potential and economics of main and ratoon crop of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish (AAA) as influenced by INM]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 792-795 (2011). Department of P. G. Studies and Research in Environmental Science Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577 451 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

               Studies on integrated nutrient management on yield parameters revealed that the bunch and yield components of both main and ratoon crop of Dwarf Cavendish banana were found significantly higher in treatment with RD FYM+RD NPK+Azotobacter+PSB+Trichoderma harzianum (T5) which recorded the maximum yield of 81.24 t/ha (main crop) and 132.65 t/ha (ratoon crop) with benefit : cost ratio of 3.28 : 1 and 5.36 : 1, respectively.

 

39.   M. PARANDNIA, P. NAJAFI* AND S. H. TABATABAEI [Effect of zeolite on germination and vegetative growth of bell pepper]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 796-799 (2011). Department of Soil & Water Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : payam.najafi@gmail.com)

Abstract

 

              In order to study the effect of various zeolite levels on germination and vegetative growth of pepper, an experiment with three treatments and five replications was conducted in the greenhouse. In this experiment, the various amounts of zeolite were considered at three levels (0, 2 and 4 g/kg soil). In addition, compost was used instead of chemical fertilizers. Also the system of drip irrigation was used for irrigating the plant. During the experiment, stem height, stem diameter and the number of leaves effective in photosynthesis were measured. The results showed that using zeolite had no significant effect on germination percentage, stem height, stem diameter and the number of leaves effective in photosynthesis; however, it had a significant effect on germination rate. Finally, using zeolite in the presence of compost and drip irrigation system did not show any considerable effect on vegetative growth changes.

 

40.  AVNI S. PATEL, N. SASIDHARAN, ASHISH G. VALA, J. N. PATEL AND G. C. JADEJA [Discrimination of genetic variability among Indian chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars through randomly amplified polymorphic DNA]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 800-806 (2011). Department of Agricultural Botany Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India

Abstract

               Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars were collected from various localities of India to determine the extent of genetic diversity at DNA level by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using 17 decamer primers. All the primers produced polymorphic amplification products with some extent of variation. A total of 295 bands were generated with an average of 10 per primer. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient which ranged from 0.23 to 0.61 indicated a rather narrow genetic base of tested chilli varieties. Clustering of these two groups showed reasonable variability that may be exploited for selecting parents for breeding purposes. Genetically distinct genotypes identified using RAPD markers could be potential sources for chilli improvement.

 

41.  D. K. SINGH, V. K. SINGH AND R. P. SINGH SINGH [Studies on bud-graft-cuttage in rose (Rosa species) in relation to different stionic combinations]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 807-812 (2011). Department of Horticulture Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi-221 002 (U. P.), India

Abstract

               A field experiment was carried out for two years continuously (2007-08 and 2008-09) at Horticultural Experiment and Training Centre, Basti (U. P.) to find out the effect of root stocks on vegetative growth and flowering of budding. Four rootstocks (Rosa multiflora, Rosa indica var. odorata, Rosa witchuriana and Rosa bourboniana) and four scion cultivars Montezuma, Nazneen, June Bride and Raktgandha) were taken for the experiment. Maximum percentage of bud take, minimum days to sprouting, maximum number of bud sprouted, largest length of sprout (cm), thickest diameter of sprout (cm), maximum number of leaflets per sprout, maximum fresh weight of initial bloom (g), highest survival percentage of buddling and maximum economics of buddling were significantly improved by using the rootstock R. indica var. odorata followed by the rootstock R. bourboniana. Among the four cultivars (scion) used, cultivar Montezuma significantly improved the performance of the characters viz., thickest diameter of sprout (cm), largest flower bud length (cm), largest bud breadth (cm), maximum fresh weight of initial bloom (g) and maximum number of petals followed by the cultivar June Bride.

 

42.   PEDDI LAXMI AND M. PRATAP [Effect of dates of planting on growth, flowering and yield of different chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 813-816 (2011). ). Department of Horticulture Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

Abstract

               An investigation was carried out during 2005-06 to study the effect of dates of planting on growth, flowering and yield of three chrysanthemum cultivars at AICRP on Floriculture, Agriculture Research Institute, Hyderabad. Three chrysanthemum cultivars viz., Basanthi, Yellow Gold and Raichur were grown at four different planting dates viz.,15 July, 15 August, 15 September and 15 October. Among the cultivars, Raichur recorded maximum plant height (24.90 cm) and the cultivar Basanthi recorded maximum plant spread (19.16 cm). Whereas number of branches per plant was more with Basanthi (10.45) which was statistically on par with Raichur (10.33). Cultivar Raichur took significantly more number of days (74.21) for its floral primordial and full bloom (163.48). Maximum flower diameter was recorded with cv. Yellow Gold (4.23 cm). Significantly long duration of flowering (64.58 days), flower yield per plant (178.20 g) and plot (6.54 kg) were recorded with cultivar Raichur. As regards to the dates of planting, 15 July planting resulted in maximum plant height (25.89 cm), plant spread (21.37 cm), number of branches per plant (13.25), number of days to first flower bud initiation (75.00), days to full bloom (146.50), flower diameter (3.88 cm), duration of flowering (58.67 days), flower yield per plant (157.94 g) and yield per plot (6.02 kg). The most profitable crop was obtained with cultivar Raichur planted on 15 July.

 

43.   C. A. AKINPELU*, O. S. ADEBAYO, B. A. ADELAJA, E. A. ADESEGUN, R. B. AMINU-TAIWO AND I. B. ADEOYE [An economic analysis of spices marketing in three selected states of Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 817-821 (2011). National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) Spices Improvement Programme P. M. B. 5432 Idi-Ishin, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria *(e-mail : adkate1@yahoo.com)

Abstract

 

              Spices are high value commodity crops and widely occurring on the Nigerian flora is a rich diversity of plant species with potentials for use as spices and medicine. Despite the importance of spices, the economic analysis of its marketing system in Nigeria has been neglected in view of the fact that they are not regularly cultivated like most food crops. This study was, therefore, designed to evaluate the economics of spices marketing and also isolate the prominent constraints involved in its marketing in Nigeria. Data were obtained from three states in Nigeria covering the Northern, Southern and Eastern parts of Nigeria, respectively. One hundred and six spice marketers were interviewed using well structured questionnaires and interview schedule. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis.  Results showed that 60.4% of the marketers were females and 65.1% were in the age bracket 31-50 years. About 70.5% of the respondents had one form of formal education or the other. The marketing margin analysis revealed that spices’ marketing in these agro-ecological zones of Nigeria was efficient and profitable. The marketing margin and efficiency of the spices sampled were in the ascending order garlic > monodora > ginger. Prominent among major constraints to marketing of spices in Nigeria was high cost of transportation.  Therefore, to fast track the process of increased production and marketing of spices for economic exploitation, awareness on the economic, medicinal and nutritional values of these spices should be heralded.

 

44.   K. KESAVACHARYULU, M. REKHA, R. BALAKRISHNA AND A. SARKAR [Association of component characters with leaf yield in advanced generation hybrids of mulberry (Morus spp.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 822-825 (2011). Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore-570 008, India

Abstract

               Association of six component characters with leaf yield was studied in 95 advanced generation hybrids of mulberry which were generated through 19 multiple crosses involving 4-6 parents of diverse geographical origin. The crosswise correlation coefficients between leaf yield and different quantitative traits revealed a wide spectrum of variation. Except number of nodes/metre length of shoot, which showed positive association in some crosses and negative association in some other crosses, the other five characters studied showed positive association with leaf yield in all the crosses. The correlations were highly significant with number of primary branches/plant, length of the longest shoot and total shoot length in majority of the crosses, while they were highly significant with biological yield and shoot yield in all the crosses. Hence, these five component characters are to be considered invariably while screening hybrids for higher yield.

 

45.   M. MADHAN MOHAN AND S. M. IBRAHIM [Symptom bioassay studies of Colletotrichum falcatum Went. crude toxin on sugarcane cultivars]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 826-828 (2011). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Agricultural College & Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

               The scientists resorting to laboratory studies for the disease screening have to depend on bioassay tests for pathogenecity confirmation. The pathogenecity of the crude toxin of red rot disease causing fungal pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum was tested on six sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 8021, Co 86249, CoSi 86071, CoSi 95071 and CoSi 96071 by symptom bioassay test on detached leaves. The dilution end point of the crude toxin as 1 : 100 was arrived. The symptom bioassay test on detached leaves showed the greater lesion diameter of 5.33 mm in Co 6304 and smaller lesion diameter of 2.33 mm in Co 86249.

 

46.   M. MADHAN MOHAN AND S. M. IBRAHIM [Electrolyte leakage studies of Colletotrichum falcatum Went. crude toxin on sugarcane cultivars]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 829-832 (2011). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Agricultural College & Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

               The pathogenecity of the crude toxin of red rot disease causing fungal pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum tested on both the red rot susceptible and resistant varieties viz., Co 6304 and Co 86249, respectively, by electrolyte leakage tests with internode, leaf and calli showed the maximum electrolyte leakage in internode followed by leaf and calli in susceptible than resistant one. The dilution end point of the crude toxin as 1 : 100 was arrived from electrolyte leakage tests.

 

47.   MARYAM VARAVIPOUR*, TOURAJ ASADI AND MAHMOUD MASHAL [Application of two layers of soil with different textures for decreasing pollution from landfills to the subterranean water table]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 833-838 (2011). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Faculty of Irrigation, Abouraihan College, University of Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : mvaravi@ut.ac.ir)

Abstract

               Heterosis studied was carried out by 8 x 8 diallel analysis (excluding reciprocals). Out of 28 crosses, 12 crosses manifested significant and positive heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant. The range of heterobeltiosis for grain yield was wide (16.98 to 82.44%). The hybrid GW 1239 x GW 1240 (82.44%) expressed the highest heterobeltiosis. The hybrid GW 1139 x GW 1240 expressed highest level of heterosis over better parent (12.29%) for grain protein and cross GW-02-51 x GW 1139 expressed highest heterosis over better parent (1.91%).

 

48.   P. TISHEHZAN*, A. A. NASERI, A. R. HASSANOGHLI AND M. MESKARBASHI [Effects of shallow saline water table management on the root zone salt balance and date palm growth in South-West Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 839-847 (2011). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Water Science Engineering College Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran *(e-mail : ptishehzan@yahoo.com)

Abstract

               The establishment period of date palm needs special irrigation and drainage management programmes in south and south-west, Iran. To achieve these programmes, lysimeter experiments were conducted. The statistical design was a split-plot arrangement of a randomised complete block design with three replicates that included three levels of ground water salinity (main plot : S1 <4, S2=8 and S3=12 dS/m) and two levels of soil surface cover (sub-plot : M1=no mulch and M2=date palm leaves mulch). These experiments were also conducted for two water table depths (D1=60 cm and D2=90 cm). The results showed that mulching helped to increase salt leaching and decreased soil EC in presence of a water table at the depth of 60 cm. The highest amount of decrease was 2.55 dS/m in treatment with D1S1M2. The highest amount of increase in treatments without mulch was 6.31 dS/m in D1S3M1. The soil EC increased in all the treatments of the experiment with D2 depth. The maximum and minimum changes in soil EC were 6.5 and 2.64 dS/m in D2S3M1 and D1S1M2, respectively. The ANOVA analyses indicated that mulch had a significant effect on the salt change rate of the root zone at a level of 1%. However, the levels of salinity did not have a significant difference. The survival rate of plants was 100% in all the treatments. The highest EC of soil was 14.29 dS/m in treatment with D2S3M1. Mulch improved the growth of date palm. In experiments with a controlled water table at 60 cm, most of new leaf and leaflet numbers were 4.33 and 117.67, respectively, in treatment with D1S3M2. These indices were 4 and 120.33 for a depth of 90 cm obtained from treatment with D2S2M2. Therefore, if shallow saline water tables could be managed and soil surface could be covered, date palm plantation establishments could thrive without harmful symptoms.

 

49.   G. H. KARIMI*, A. A. NASERI, M. BEHZAD AND M. MESKARBASHI [Groundwater contribution with different salinities on providing maize water requirement and its effects on maize yields]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 848-856 (2011). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering Shahid Chamran University, Postal Code 61357-43311, Ahwaz, Iran *(e-mail : karimi1925@gmail.com)

Abstract

               A lysimeter experiment was conducted to study the shallow groundwater contribution in supplying maize water requirement. Twenty-four lysimeters, each consisting of a 1.2 m deep, 0.8 m diameter polyethylene pipe, were installed. Summer maize was planted in the lysimeters. The depth of groundwater table in the lysimeters was set to 0.6 m using Marriotte bottles. Three groundwater salinity levels (2.5, 5 and 7.5 dS/m) with two irrigation levels (at rates of 0.7 and 1 times of evaporation from pan class A at the before irrigation period) which replenished soil water on a weekly basis were used in the experiment. Factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was established. In an individual treatment, maize was planted with full irrigation and No Ground Water (NGW) as the control treatment, replicated three times. The results indicated that groundwater contribution per cent at full irrigation level for each three salinity treatments (abovementioned) was 5.28, 4.61 and 3.76, and at deficit irrigation level was 25, 22.09 and 19.71, respectively. All differences were significant at the 0.05 Duncan’s multiple ranges test. At deficit irrigation level, the grain yield reduction compared to control treatment was 23.57, 28.17 and 30.16% for three salinity treatments, respectively, and the dry matter reduction was also 37.50, 38.96 and 39.20%. At full irrigation level, the grain yield reduction was 19.42, 25.48 and 21.90% and the dry matter reduction was also 28.08, 33.60 and 25.78%. At full irrigation mode, the groundwater contribution decreased when the groundwater salinity increased and may be less evaporation from the soil surface causing less salt rising in the root zone and more relative yield.

 

50.   MAJID BEHZAD, ALI HEIDAR NASROLAHI, SAEED BOROOMAND NASAB AND FARAMARZ JUDY* [Effect of water temperature variations on the hydraulic properties : Compensating and non-compensating emitters]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 857-863 (2011). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Faculty of Water Science Engineering Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, P. O. Box 61357-8-3151, Iran *(e-mail : faramarzjudy@yahoo.com)

Abstract

 

               Discharge of emitters changes by various factors such as pressure, manufacturing coefficient of variation, obstruction and temperature of irrigation water. In order to review the effects of temperate on discharge of emitters, 10 types of emitters have been tested in irrigation laboratory in Faculty of Water Science Engineering, Ahwaz, Shahid Chamran University. In this research, the effect of four different temperatures i. e. 10, 20, 30 and 40°C under four pressures i. e. 5, 10, 15 and 20 m was reviewed. For experiments in temperature of 10°C, the ice was used and in temperatures of 30° and 40°C, a tank equipped with an element and controlling unit for temperature, respectively. The calculation of manufacturing coefficient in temperature of laboratory (20°C) and based on American Society of Agricultural Engineers standard of variation in qualitative classification of emitters was done which, resulted in four excellent types, two were unusable and remainder were between both the conditions. With regard to obtained results by raising temperature of irrigation water, the discharge of non-compensating emitters was increased. In compensating emitters, the temperature didn’t have meaningful effect on discharge of emitters in three cases of temperature, but in two types caused to decreased discharge. In final, result showed that temperature didn’t have a meaningful effect on manufacturing coefficient of variation.

 

51.   V. K. JAIN AND B. B. PARMAR [Relative efficacy of different lining materials in controlling seepage losses of water from dug out farm ponds]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 864-867 (2011). Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Khargone (M. P.), India

Abstract

              Studies were carried out to assess the relative efficacy of different lining materials on seepage rates at different water heads (1.60, 1.40, 1.20 and 1.00 m) from dug out farm ponds in a black clay soil of Nimar region located in western parts of the state of Madhya Pradesh.  The results indicated that the theoretical model for computing seepage rate from farm ponds as proposed by Pant (1988) held good and could be utilized for all the practical purposes in black clay soils also. The maximum reduction in seepage rate at any water head under consideration was obtained due to lining of dug pond with plastic film (silpaulin) 120±2 gsm without cover. Next in order were the lining materials of   low density polyethylene film of  90±2 gsm with brick cover,  sand+cement mixture (15 : 1 ) of 4±0.2 cm thickness, soil mud+straw+cow and buffalo dung mixture (8 : 1 : 1) of 5±0.2 cm thickness and bentonite (5 kg/m2), respectively. The lining coefficients for unlined dug out farm pond or control, bentonite (5 kg/m2), plastic film (silpaulin) 120±2 gsm without cover, low density polyethylene film of  90±2 gsm with brick cover, soil mud+straw+cow and buffalo dung mixture (8 : 1 : 1) of 5±0.2 cm thickness and sand+cement mixture (15 : 1 ) of 4±0.2 cm thickness were estimated to be 1.0000, 0.7368, 0.0539, 0.0641, 0.5770 and 0.2228, respectively.

 

52.   K. M. SELLAMUTHU*, C. MAYILSWAMI, A. VALLIAMMAI AND S. CHELLAMUTHU [Effect of textile and dye industry polluted ground water on growth and yield of sunflower]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 868-874 (2011). Water Technology Centre Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : kmsella75@yahoo.com)

Abstract

              A pot culture experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of textile and dye industry polluted ground water on sunflower. Ground water was diluted to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 dS/m and control was maintained with Siruvani water (<0.1 d/Sm) . Growth parameters were recorded during vegetative, flowering and harvest. Physiological parameters were recorded during flowering. Plant height, dry matter and seed yield decreased with the increase in EC values of the diluted polluted water in red soil (Irugur series). In black soil (Periyanaickenpalayam series), plant height increased upto 4 dS/m and haulm and seed yield increased upto 6 dS/m. Physiological parameters were significantly altered by the salinity levels of polluted water. Due increase in salinity level available nutrients in soil and uptake of N, P and K was reduced. Influence of salinity was severe in coarse textured soil than fine textured soil.

 

53.   ALIREZA ABBASI SEMNANI, MOHAMMAD HASSAN NAMI, MOHAMMAD SALIGHEH AND NASER BAY* [An analysis on climatic causes of forests and grasslands fires in south-east of Caspian sea : A case study of Golestan Province, Iran (1998-2008)]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 875-887 (2011). Department of Geography Branch of Najaf Abad, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : naserbay1@gmail.com)

Abstract

               Time and place of fires are predictable on one hand, and on the other hand, they occur gradually. Therefore, it seems possible to decrease the possibility of damages and losses caused by fires during occurrence. The present study was aimed at evaluating synoptic causes of forests and grasslands fires in south-east of Caspian Sea. Literature showed that in an interval between 1961 and 2001, the extent of forests located in south of Caspian Sea decreased from 18 mha to nearly 12 mha (indicating to an annual 200,000 ha rate of deforestation). The present study used synoptic method in order to evaluate the causes of the fires. To this end, a sample was chosen from each cluster following clustering fires; then, various atmospheric levels and their anomalies were mapped synoptically and causes of the phenomenon were explored. Three synoptic patterns were detected as being effective in occurrence of the fires. The first pattern showed an extreme atmospheric heat on the surface of the earth and middle levels of atmosphere. The pattern, also, demonstrated that Mediterranean tall wave ridge led to warm air descend on Iran from KSA and Africa where low pressure tarmac intensified this status. The second pattern indicated that hot and arid air in lower latitudes seemed to have a causative role in the fires occurrence. The third pattern proposed a blend of hot air and arid air of lower latitudes to cause the fires.

 

54.   V. PALANIMUTHU*, D. SHASHIKALABAI, K. RAGHU AND P. NAVYA YADHAV [Studies of hydrothermal pretreatments on foxtail millet for improved milling and nutritional quality]. Res. on Crops12(2): 888-892 (2011).AICRP on Post-Harvest TechnologyUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India*(e-mail : palanimuthuv@rediffmail.com)

Abstract

 

               Different parboiling pretreatments like cold and hot water soaking followed by steaming at different pressures for varying durations were imposed on foxtail millet grain. Milling studies of parboiled grains were conducted using laboratory rubber roll sheller and abrasive polisher. The dehusking and milling efficiencies were slightly higher for parboiled samples compared to raw grain. Maximum values of dehusking (99.0%) and milling efficiencies (97.1%) were recorded in the pretreatment where the grains were soaked at 70°C for 3½ h, steamed at 1 kg/cm² for 10 min and subsequently sun-dried to a moisture content of 9% and the above values for raw grain were only 96.9 and 93.8%, respectively. Depending upon the severity of hydro-thermal treatments, the milling and nutritional qualities of foxtail millet were also found to vary. Highest head yield (98.1%) and lowest breakage (1.9%) of milled millet rice were observed in the most severely parboiled samples. However, the milling yield was slightly higher (0.6-2.2%) for mildly parboiled samples compared to both raw and severely parboiled grains. The colour of milled raw foxtail millet rice was light yellow (DE* value = 44.4) which increasingly became dull and deep yellowish with the increase in severity of hydrothermal treatments. The biochemical composition of various parboiled milled foxtail millet rice samples i. e. carbohydrates, fat, fibre and ash contents, was almost similar to that of raw millet rice. However, there was a slight increase in protein content (0.06-0.91%) in parboiled samples when compared to raw millet rice.

 

55.   AKIN SONGUL* AND UYSAL ERSIN [Impact of rural development activities of Turkey Development Foundation (TKV) on women in Karacadag region of Diyarbakir, Turkey]. Res. on Crops12(3): 893-899 (2011). Department of Horticulture Dicle University 21280, Diyarbakir, Turkey *(e-mail : sakin@dicle.edu.tr)

Abstract

 

               Differences in development levels are the primary source of many problems, such as poverty. Poverty also appears to be a manifestation of underdevelopment. Today, the concept of “rural development” is a major issue because more than half of the world’s population lives in rural areas. Women, who make up half of the rural population, benefit less from education and economic resources than men because of poverty. Rural development is a holistic phenomenon with tangible and intangible factors, requiring social attitude changes attitudes to move in the right direction. Therefore, women are the target audience of rural development work. In this study, the effects of rural development projects on women in Turkey are evaluated. The Turkey Development Foundation implemented 21 different projects in the Karacadag region within 13 different villages between 1989 and 1998. Its aim was to discover the effects of rural development projects by comparing the 13 villages in which development projects were not implemented.