Volume 12, Number 1 (April, 2011)

By | July 26, 2014

1. P. RAJARATHINAM, G. JAMES MARTIN, R. JEYASRINIVAS AND T. BALAJI [Soil nutrient dynamics in wet seeded rice based cropping system as influenced by integrated nitrogen management practices]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 1-7 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during kharif, rabi and summer seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the soil nutrient dynamics in wet seeded rice based cropping system as influenced by integrated nitrogen management practices. The field experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Organic N sources viz., dual cropping of Azolla, Sesbania rostrata individually and in combination were compared in main plot treatments. Inorganic N levels viz., 0, 50, 75 and 100% recommended N were compared in the sub-plots. Greengram was raised as summer residual crop. The result of the study revealed that the rice intercropped with S. rostrata and dual cropped with Azollain both the kharif and rabi seasons and fertilization of 100% recommended N followed by summer residual greengram led to increase in organic carbon, soil available N and P and decline in the soil available K.

 

2. P. RAJARATHINAM, G. JAMES MARTIN, R. JEYASRINIVAS AND T. BALAJI [Nitrogen balance in wet seeded rice based cropping system as influenced by integrated nitrogen management practices]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 8-12 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during kharif, rabi and summer seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the nitrogen balance in wet seeded rice based cropping system as influenced by integrated nitrogen management practices. The field experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Organic N sources viz., dual cropping of Azolla, Sesbania rostrata individually and in combination were compared in main plot treatments. Inorganic N levels viz., 0, 50, 75 and 100% recommended N were compared in the sub-plots. Greengram was raised as summer residual crop. The result of the study revealed that the rice intercropped with Sesbania rostrata and dual cropped with Azolla and application of 100% recommended N in both the kharif and rabi rice followed by summer residual greengram recorded the high positive N balance in the wet seeded rice-rice-greengram cropping system in North-Western Agroclimatic Zone of Tamil Nadu.

 

3. A. Bandehagh* and A. H. Hossein Zadeh Moghbeli[Effects of salinity on wheat genotypes and their genotype × salinity interaction analysis]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 13-19 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664, Iran *(e-mail : bandehhagh@ yahoo.com ; bandehhagh@tabrizu.ac.ir)

Abstract

Salinity is a major world-wide problem which limits production of many field crops. Salinity tolerance for sodium chloride (NaCl) of 20 wheat genotypes (T. aestivum L.) was assessed in hydroponic culture system and 18 agronomic and morphologic characteristics (including grain and biological yield, day to heading, maturity, flag leaf area and plant fresh and dry weight, etc.) were evaluated. Furthermore, K+ and Na+ contents in the shoot of wheat genotypes at the various salinity levels were measured. Significant differences between genotypes and significant genotype × salinity interactions were observed. Comparison of trait means under stress and non-stress conditions showed that genotypes N-75-5, N-75-6, N-75-10 and N-75-16 had better performances. Significant correlations between K+/Na+ and all of the agro-morphological traits (such as yield components), except number of leaf, underlined the importance of this ratio in selecting tolerant genotypes. Cluster analysis for 20 genotypes separated two classes of tolerant and sensitive genotypes with each cluster divided into two sub-clusters. Environmental sensitivity analysis was carried out using regression models for four sub-classes. This analysis and analysis of genotypes × salinity interactions showed higher performance of following cultivars and lines : N-75-5, N-75-6, N-75-10, N-75-13, N-75-2, N-75-3 and N-75-16 under salinity conditions.

 

4. Mohammad Reza Dadnia*, A. Asgharzadeh and F. Hooshmand Khayat [Effect of different strains of Azotobacter chrococcum and nitrogen fertilizer on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 20-22 (2011). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

In response of wheat to low (90 kg/ha) and normal (120 kg/ha) N rate, A. chrococcum strains (15, 35 and 38) were applied in Ahwaz climatical conditions. A study was conducted to determine the effects of A. chrococcum strains for N supply in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The results showed that yield and other traits were affected by strains. Strain 38 increased wheat yield 31 to 37% at 90 and 120 kg N/ha than control treatments, respectively. Other strains had positive effect on yield and yield components, but this arising was lower than strain 38. The data showed that strains at low N rate had better performance than normal condition. Improved performance in response to inputs was generally associated with significant increases in plant height, grains/spike, and tillers/m2. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the three A. chrococcum strains notably influenced the soil properties and therefore the wheat yield parameters.

 

5. Elham Moshaver*, Eskandar Zand, Hamid Reza Miri and Farrokh Dien Ghezeli [Effect of separate and tank-mix treatments of herbicides on weed control and yield of corn (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 23-26 (2011). Center for Agriculture Research Islamic Azad University, Arsenjan-Fars, Iran *(e-mail : elham.moshaver@yahoo.com)
*(e-mail : mghehsareh@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Field studies were conducted at Center of Research Agriculture, Fars-Zarghan, Iran in 2009 to investigate the effect of separate and tank-mix herbicide treatments on weed control and corn yield. Tank-mix herbicide treatments including 16 combinations applied treatments consisted of two herbicides : nicosulfuron with four doses 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 l/ha and bromicid with four doses 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 l/ha. There were 16 treatments such as n0+b0, n0+b0.5, n0+b1, n0+b1.5, n1+b0, n1+b0.5, n1+b1, n1+b1.5, n1.5+b0, n1.5+b0.5, n1.5+b1, n1.5+b1.5, n2+b0, n2+b0.5, n2+b1 and n2+b1.5. Herbicides reduced weed biomass compared with the weedy check. Minimum reduction in weed biomass was observed with bromicid at 0.5 l/ha and maximum reduction in weed biomass was observed with nicosulfuron at 1 l/ha and bromicid 0.5 l/ha. The results showed that all the tank-mix treatments were better than the separate treatmeants of herbicides. The results also indicated that the best treatment was nicosulfuron 1 l/ha+bromicid 0.5 l/ha (n1+b0.5 ) in relation to yield corn and control of weeds in comparison with other treatments in tank-mix and maximum corn grain yield was obtained with combinations of nicosulfuron 1+bromicid 0.5 l/ha.

 

6. Mansour Sarajuoghi, Mohammad Reza Ardakani, Ghorban Nurmohammadi, Farhad Rejali, Ali Kashani and Saeed Mafakheri [Effect of biofertilizers, manure and sulphur on sustainable production of corn (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 27-32 (2011). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : msarajuoghi@gmail.com).

Abstract

This experiment was conducted in 2008 to evaluate the effects of Thiobacillus sp. inoculum with sulfur and animal manure on corn yield and yield components. Treatments included thiobacillus (with-without), manure (30 t/ha-without) and sulfur (0-150-300 kg/ha). Experimental design was factorial in the form of randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. All seeds were inoculated with mycorrhiza and azotobacter before being planted. Studying the main effects and interactions of the three treatments on some traits such as grain and forage production, number of kernels per ear, mycorrhizal per cent and root dry weight showed that application of chemical fertilizer with organic and biological sources of mineral nutrients can increase nutrients uptake by crops. Manure improves soil physical and chemical properties for activation of mycorrhiza and azotobacter and moreover, it is a source of energy for thiobacillus. Interaction of manure × thiobacillus × sulfur had the most increasing effect on yield and yield components and improved grain production 19.85% which was greater than alone application of each three treatments (manure alone : 16.6%, sulfur alone : 3% and thiobacillus alone : 1.3%). Finally, results indicate that although each of the three types of fertilizers had positive effect on measured traits, but when applied simultaneously, the effect was greater.

 

7. M. PARAMASIVAN, K. R. KUMARESAN, P. MALARVIZHI, S. THIYAGESWARI, S. MAHIMAIRAJA AND K. VELAYUDHAM [Nutrient optimization strategy for sustainable productivity of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) in Peelamedu (Plm) series of soils of Tamil Nadu]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India).

Abstract

The study was undertaken to evaluate the fertilizer optima for balanced fertilization by a systematic approach on soil fertility evaluation proposed by Portch and Hunter (1988). In nutrient sorption study, the sorption characteristics of Peelamedu soil series were determined by both conventional and Agro Service International (ASI) method. The nutrients viz., phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) were found as limiting nutrients in this soils and these were considered as deficient nutrients. The optimum nutrient requirements were fixed as 200, 60, 25 and 10 kg/ha of N, P, K and Zn, respectively, for Peelamedu soil series. Nitrogen level was fixed for optimum nutrient treatment at 200 kg/ha as prescribed by Portch and Hunter (2002) for this experimental soil series (N2P2K2Zn) with a zero level and one below and one above this level of N were arrived. The field experiment was conducted with maize (COHM 5) as a test crop. The maximum grain yield of maize (8147 kg/ha) was observed with the application of 250 : 60 : 25 : 10 kg of NPK and Zn/ha and it gave the maximum net income of Rs. 38, 867/ha with the benefit : cost ratio of 2.73.

 

8. M. Paramasivan, K. R. Kumaresan, P. Malarvizhi, S. Thiyageswari, S. Mahimairaja and K. Velayudham[Nutrient optimization strategy for sustainable productivity of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) in Palaviduthi (Pvd) series of soils of Tamil Nadu]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 39-44 (2011). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore–641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India).

Abstract

The study was undertaken to evaluate the fertilizer optima for balanced fertilization by a systematic approach on soil fertility evaluation proposed by Portch and Hunter (1988). In nutrient sorption study, the sorption characteristics of Palaviduthi soil series were determined by both conventional and Agro Service International (ASI) method. The nutrients viz., phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) were found as limiting nutrients in this soil and these were considered as deficient nutrients. The optimum nutrient requirements were fixed as 200, 76, 88 and 7.4 kg/ha of N, P, K and Zn, respectively, for Palaviduthi soil series. Nitrogen level was fixed for optimum nutrient treatment at 200 kg/ha as prescribed by Portch and Hunter (2002) for this experimental soil series (N2P2K2Zn) with a zero level and one below and one above this level of N were arrived. The field experiment was conducted with maize (COHM 5) as a test crop. The maximum grain yield of maize (7712 kg/ha) was observed with the application of 250 : 76 : 88 : 7.4 kg of NPK and Zn/ha and it gave the maximum net income of Rs. 35,137/ha with the benefit : cost ratio of 2.52.

 

9. Ali Soleymani, Ali Asghar Khajedin and Mohammad Hesam Shahrajabian [Grain yield and yield components of corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids in response to planting dates in semi-arid region in Isfahan]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 45-52 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_ Soleymani@Khuisf.ac.ir) *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Recognition of heat requirement for different hybrids causes understanding the suitable planting date on the basis of their natural characteristics. So, to evaluate the effects of different planting dates on corn,s hybrids, an experiment was conducted in 2008 at Cultural Experimental and Research Center, Kaboutar Abad, Isfahan, Iran. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Main plots were three planting dates (June 5th, June 20th and July 5th), and sub-plots were six hybrids, namely, O. K. S. C. 250, K. S. C. 320 (Early maturity hybrids), K. S. C. 400, O. S. S. K. 552 (Mid maturity hybrids) and O. S. S. K. 713, K. S. C. 704 (Late maturity hybrids). Delay in cropping, caused significant increase in the number of days and GDD from planting to germination, seed yield and harvest index, and also, caused significant decrease in the number of days and GDD from planting to tassel stage, physiological maturity, seed number per row and protein percentage. The effect of planting date on ear seed row number and 1000-seed weight was not significant. The effect of hybrid on developmental stages and all traits was significant. Maximum GDD was related to K. S. C. 704 (Late maturity hybrid). The maximum seed number per row, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and harvest index were related to K. S. C. 400 and O. S. S. K. 713 (Mid maturity hybrids). The O. S. S. K. 713 hybrid had maximum protein percentage. Results showed that plantation of mid maturity hybrids, namely, K. S. C. 400 and O. S. S. K. 552 in July 5th is the best choice to achieve the maximum seed yield.

 

10. A. Ehsan Shahrabian* and Ali Soleymani [Response of forage maize hybrids to different regimes of irrigation]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : . Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University-Khorasgan Branch, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : ehhssan@hotmail.com)).

Abstract

Sufficient irrigation water is needed to rented crop production. To quantify effects of several irrigation regimes on yield and quality of silage corn, one trial was conducted at Arak Azad University Agriculture Research Farm. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Main plots were one of three irrigation regimes in three levels 12-13% soil water content (SWC) as non-stressed treatment, 7-8% SWC as a mild stress treatment, and 3-4% SWC as a severe stress treatment, according to soil moisture depletion curve and sub-plots were cultivars (KO 6, SC 700, SC 704 and SC 647). Results showed that soil water depletion significantly reduced relative water content (RWC) of hybrids in tasseling and ear appearance stages. Significant difference between hybrids for RWC was just observed in ear appearance stage. Hybrid KO 6 in this stage had significant supreme RWC. RWC of hybrids in this stage reduced moderately. As irrigation regime reduced from the highest level to the lowest, forage dry matter decreased from 28.8 to 14.1 t/ha and forage harvesting index decreased from 0.59 to 0.3. As a final point, forage yield of hybrids commonly, reduced sorely. On the basis of the results obtained, hybrid KO 6, forage harvesting index of KO 6 was reduced fairly and produced expectant forage yield under the condition similar to the present study.

 

11.Ehsan Shahrabian* and Ali Soleymani[Effect of water deficit on morpho-physiologic behaviour of fodder cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.)1]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 60-67 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : ehhssan@hotmail.com).

Abstract

Fodder maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars grown under semi-arid climate require supplemental irrigation to maximize the fodder yield and quality. In addition, there are attempts to investigate drought tolerant cultivars we were concerned with relevance of known morpho-physiologic mechanisms of these cultivars for improving programmes on crop yield. An experiment was conducted in summer 2004 to monitor and quantify water deficit and to develop parameters for irrigation scheduling researches, in Iranian cropping system. Three irrigation treatments based on RWC were used in split plot design–Normal (RWC about 90%), mild stress (RWC about 60-70%) and severe stress (RWC about 40%). Four fodder hybrids (KO 6, SC 700, SC 704 and SC 647) were used. Results showed that there were significant differences in DM yield, plant height, number of brace roots and lively leaves, ear diameter and length. Mild and severe stress treatments reduced final fodder DM yield by 35.3 and 49.8%, respectively. As irrigation regime reduced from the highest level to the lowest, forage dry matter decreased from 28.8 to 14.1 t/ha and total fresh weight decreased from 59.2 to 29.0 t/ha. It was concluded that cultivars had a little tolerance to water deficit, even in mild stress condition. Cultivar SC 647 produced minimum fodder yield in non-stressed and stressed conditions. RWC suggested that advanced osmotic adjustment in cultivar KO 6 led to higher photosynthetic area and yield.

 

12. Mohammad Hesam Shahrajabian, Ali Soleymani* and Leila Naranjani [Grain yield and forage characteristics of forage sorghum under different plant densities and nitrogen levels in second cropping after barley in Isfahan, Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 68-78 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran

*(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

In order to determine grain yield, forage yield and some forage physical characteristics in second cropping after barley, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan in 2009. In this study, completely randomized block design with four replications was used. The main plots were plant densities, namely, 250000, 300000, 350000 and 400000 plants per ha, and four levels of nitrogen, namely, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg N/ha were sub-plots. The effects of plant density and nitrogen levels on number of seeds per panicle were not significant. The maximum number of seeds per panicle, 1000-seed weight and seed yield were related to application of 160 kg N/ha and 250000 plants per ha. But, the highest plant height, number of leaves per plant, LAI, fresh and dry forage yield were achieved in 400000 plants per ha with application of 240 kg N/ha. It seems that 400000 plants per ha with 240 kg N/ha were suitable for producing high amount of forage in second cropping after barley.

 

13. N. Jagathjothi*, K. Ramamoorthy and R. Kuttimani [Integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of rainfed direct sown finger millet]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 79-81 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : jothinarayanan2000@gmail.com)

Abstract

The experiment was carried out during north-east monsoon season of 2004-05 in clay loamy soil at Millet Breeding Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate FYM with and without enrichment, its method of application alongwith inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of rainfed direct sown finger millet. Band placement of P enriched farm yard manure with 100% recommended N and K (T13) had influenced the growth and yield attributes. Hence, markedly increased grain (3269 kg/ha) and straw (5908 kg/ha) yield over all other treatments. Band placement performed well than broadcasting method of application.

 

14. Farshid Vazin, Ahad Madani* and Abdolreza Liaghat [Impact of sowing density and harvesting management on pattern of hard seed breakdown in alfalfa (Medicago scutellata)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 82-86 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Gonabad Branch, Gonabad, Iran *(e-mail : madani_ahad@yahoo.com)

Abstract

To evaluate the effects of deferred harvesting, sowing density and harvest intensity on hard seed and breakdown trend of an annual medic (Medicago scutellata var. Robinson), an experiment was conducted in the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Tehran University in Karaj, Iran during the 2005 growing season. The experimental factors were arranged in split-split plots based on a complete randomized block design with four replications. The method of harvesting (continues or deferred), the sowing density (25, 75 and 225 plants/m2) and the harvest intensity (cutting from ground level of 2, 4 and 8 cm) were allotted to the main, split and split-split plots, respectively. The results showed that present hard seedness followed a decreasing trend when sowing density decreased and harvest intensity increased. Present hard seedness was 83.3% in August during harvest of pods which was decreased to 52.7% in March. After harvesting, present hard seedness decreased in all treatments. These results suggest that when low sowing rate and severe defoliation decrease the seed production (data not shown), plants increase hard seed breakdown for fast regeneration and survive in next years which can be noted as a pasture management strategy.

 

15. Khosro Azizi*, Ali Zareh, Saeid Hidary and Majid Amini Dehaghi [Effects of sowing date, planting method and cultivar on growth traits, seed yield and yield components of chickpea in dry farming condition]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 87-98 (2011). Department of Agronomy University of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran *(e-mail : azizi_kh44@yahoo.com)

Abstract

An experiment was carried out to investigate about the influence of sowing date, planting method and cultivar on morphological traits, yield and yield components of chickpea seed. The trial was done in dry farming condition at Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University in Khorramabad with average annual precipitation of 482.42 mm in 2006-07 farming year. The experiment was conducted factorially, based on randomized complete block design with three replications and three factors, including sowing date in three levels (December 23, January 23 and February 23), planting method in two levels (row cropping and sow broadcast methods) and cultivar in three levels (Arman, Hashem and Greet local bulk). However, the plant density was constant and was 50 seeds per m2 in all treatments. The results showed that except the single plant’s biological yield and seed number per pod that were affected by triple interaction probability of 1%, all other characteristics such as plant height, pod number per plant, seed yield, biological yield, number of side branches per plant, gain yield of single plant, protein per cent, weight of 100 seeds and harvest index were influenced by triple interactions and became significant in probability of 5%. The highest values for the number of side branches was 7.12 from sowing date of December, sow broadcast method and Arman cultivar for the number of pods per plant was 14.8 from sowing date of December row cropping method and Arman cultivar; for seed yield was 2821.73 kg per hectare from sowing date of January 23, Arman cultivar and row cropping method; for biological yield was 8781.2 kg per hectare from sowing date of January, row cropping method and Arman cultivar; for seed protein percent was 23.86 from sowing date of February, sow broadcast method and Hashem cultivar; and for harvest index was 43.74% from sowing date of January 23, row cropping method and Arman cultivar. A delay in planting declined the seed yield and harvest index in the investigated cultivar. The lowest percentage was achieved for number of side branches per plant (1.25) from planting February, row cropping method and Arman cultivar; biological yield (455.8 kg per hectare) from December planting date, handing planting method and local bulk Greet; seed protein per cent (20.16) from January planting date, row cropping method and Greet local bulk and harvest index (17.44%) from February planting date, handing planting method and Hashem cultivar. It seems that the delay in planting use of unbreeded local bulk will cause the decreasing of protein per cent and the significant difference was in the level of 5% of probability. The results of growth analysis showed that the highest crop growth rate belonged to Arman cultivar (19.10 W.A-1.T-1) and January sowing date (13.5 W.A-1.T-1) and, row cropping method (14.59 W. A-1.T-1). The highest leaf area index was gained from January sowing date (3.2), handing planting method (3.3) and cultivar Arman (3.5). The highest net assimilation rate (9.6 W.A-1.T-1) was achieved from January sowing date and row cropping method.

 

16. B. S. Adpawar, A. P. Karunakar, N. D. Parlawar and K. R. Chavhan [Effect of weed management practices on productivity of blackgram]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 99-102 (2011). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

Abstract

Beneficial effect due to integrated weed management treatment i. e. pendimethalin pre-emergence 1000 g a.i./ha+1 H 30 DAS (T7) was observed on growth and yield attributes of blackgram. The straw and biological yield (20.28 and 27.86 q/ha, respectively) of blackgram was maximum in Pen PRE + 1 H treatment followed by cultural treatment one hoeing at 15 DAS and 1 HW at 30 DAS (T13) recorded (19.44 and 27.30 q/ha, respectively), but in case of grain yield cultural treatment 1 H+1 HW recorded maximum (7.86 q/ha) followed by Pen PRE+1 H at 30 DAS (7.58 q/ha). Weed control efficiency and dry matter per plant at harvest were significantly higher in cultural treatment (T13) and integrated weed control treatment (T7). This is attributed to efficient and prolonged weed control by weedicide as well as cultural treatment (T13) for control of late emerging weeds. Maximum net monetary returns were obtained due to one hoeing at 15 DAS and one hand weeding at 30 DAS (Rs. 20777/ha) with benefit : cost ratio 2.60, followed by Pen PRE+1 H at 30 DAS; but in case of gross monetary returns (Rs./ha) treatments T13 and T7 recorded at par with each other but both were significantly superior over other treatments tested.

 

17. Khosro Azizi, Mohammad Yaghobi, Saeid Hidary, Mohamad reza Chaeichi and Rahelea Roham [Effects of different methods of magnesium sulphate application on qualitative and quantitative yield of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) cultivars under Khorramabad climatic conditions of Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 103-111 (2011). Department of Agronomy University of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran

Abstract

To study the effect of different methods of magnesium sulphate application and cultivar on the quantity and quality of lentil yield in Khorramabad climatic conditions, this experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the College of Agriculture, Lorestan University (48º22¢ E and 33º29¢ N) in 2008. Different methods of magnesium sulphate application as the first factor (control, soil application method, foliar application, seed inoculation, foliar+soil application and foliar application + seed inoculation method) and cultivar as the second factor (Gachsaran cultivar and Filip-92-12L cultivar) were applied. The results showed that the highest grain and biological yield and plant height were obtained from fertilization with the soil application method. The highest percentage of crude seed protein was obtained from foliar application. Also, the highest 1000-seed weight, pod number per plant, plant height and seed magnesium percentage were all obtained from foliar+soil application treatment. However, the highest harvest index was obtained from the seed inoculation method. Grain yield showed a significant positive correlation with the pod number per plant and biological yield (P<0.01). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between crude seed protein percentage and seed magnesium percentage (P<0.01). Soil application method of magnesium sulphate on Filip-92-12L cultivar was suggested to obtain the highest grain yield, while foliar application and foliar+soil application methods on Filip-92-12L cultivar were suggested to gain the high seed magnesium and crude protein percentage.

 

18. Sayyed Mohammad Reza Hejazi-Dehaghani* and Bahram Majd-Nasiri [Effects of sowing date, plant density and planting arrangement on phenological stages and some traits of common bean grown in Dehaghan region, Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 112-117 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : hejazi14@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Due to the availability of favourable temperature and the soil and water which are salinity free, Dehaghan County is capable of planting beans. To investigate the effects of sowing date and plant density on different stages of its growth, Line 1-61-57 of common bean was studied as the suitable cultivar of region during two successive years since 2007. The present study was carried out as twice split plots in randomized complete blocks with three replications, so that the different sowing dates (17th May, 6th and 15th June) were considered as main treatments, two row spacings (50 and 70 cm) as sub-treatments and three plant spacings on each row (10, 20 and 30 cm) as sub sub-treatments. Studying the analysis of combined variance during two years of the experiment and also comparing the mean of different traits illustrate that all phenological stages and the number of days required to reach every growth stage were affected by the experimental treatments. This effect which did not observe similarly during the different years of experiment included the germinative and generative stages.

 

19. Bahram Majd-Nasiri and Sayyed Mohammad Reza Hejazi-Dehaghani [Determination of most suitable planting date, optimum plant density and arrangement of common bean grown in Dehaghan region, Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 118-121 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : hejazi14@yahoo.com)

Abstract

In Isfahan province, about 1000 ha of cultivated lands of spring products is devoted to the planting of varieties of pulse crops. Also, the major production of kinds of beans including common bean is in Dehaghan County. In order to determine the most suitable conditions of production in terms of sowing date and plant density, line 1-61-57 was studied as the proper region cultivar during two consecutive years from 2007. The study of combined variance analysis of two-year experiment as well as the comparison of means indicated that all seed yield components except for 100-seed weight were affected by planting date. Totally, two-year study demonstrated the second planting date (6th June) was the best planting date of this line for the excellence of seed number per pod and seed yield. The effect of row spacing on pod number per plant and seed yield was meaningful. The plants’ spacing on each row significantly influenced whole yield components and yield. In general, regarding the planting density, density of 20 plants/m2 (highest plant density) -50 cm row spacing in 10 cm plant spacing provided the best conditions for producing line 1-61-57.

 

20. Rozbeh Farhoudi and Saeed Saeedipour* [Effect of exogenous abscisic acid on antioxidant activity and salt tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 122-130 (2011). Department of Agronomy Islamic Azad University (IAU), Shooshtar Branch, Iran *(e-mail : saeeds79@gmail.com)

Abstract

In this experiment, the response of two canola (Brassica napus) cultivars, Fornex (salt tolerance) and Okamer (salt sensitive) under two salinity levels (0 and 120 mM NaCl solution) to ABA foliar application (0, 15 and 30 µmol/l) was investigated. Results indicated salt stress decrease, shoot dry matter and shoot K+ concentration in canola cultivars but increased antioxidant enzyme activity and leaf Na+ concentration. The results showed that ABA foliar application (15 µmol/l) under salinity condition improved shoot dry matter, photosynthesis rate, peroxidase, catalase activity and shoot K+ concentration, while decreased shoot Na+ concentration in Okamer. In fact, ABA foliar application (15 µmol/l) increased salinity tolerance in Okamer compared to absence of ABA but the high level of ABA treatments (30 µmol/l) reduced growth in this cultivar. ABA foliar application showed negative effect on Fornex cultivar under salinity condition and non-salinity condition.

 

21. Ahmad Reza Golparvar and marzieh karimi [Assessment of drought tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 131-133 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, P.O.Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

Abstract

In order to determine the best drought resistance indices and identify the resistant genotypes, 10 canola cultivars were sown at drought and non-drought conditions based on randomized completely block design with three replications. Assessment of simple correlation coefficients among drought resistance indices and seed yield of cultivars showed that MP, GMP and STI enabled to identify cultivars having high potential yield and tolerance to drought stress and because of that were recognized as the best resistance indices. The Option 500, Hyola 300, Slm 046 and Hyola 401 were recognized as the most tolerant canola cultivars for cultivation and recommendation in this region based on the best resistance indices. On the other hand, crosses between these cultivars qualified to recommendation for genetic improvement of yield potential and drought resistance via selection in canola cultivars.

 

22. Ali Soleymani*, Mehdi Shayanfar, Ahmad Reza Golparvar, Mohammad Hesam Shahrajabian and Leila Naranjani [Response of different sunflower cultivars to various planting densities]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 134-138 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_ Soleymani@Khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

In order to study the effect of plant density on yield and yield components of three sunflower cultivars, an experiment was conducted in 2006-07 at Cultural Experiment and Research Centre in Isfahan. A factorial layout within randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The experimental treatments were three cultivars of sunflower Sup. Armky-19 (Sup. A), S1 Re85 (S1R) and Sup. Prrog.sh-85 (Sup. P) and four plant densities (8, 10, 12, 14 plants per m2) in 60 cm interval rows. The results showed that the effect of plant density was significant on number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. The effect of cultivar was significant on 1000-seed weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil percentage. Sup. A cultivar had obtained the highest seed yield (3383 kg/ha), biological yield and harvest index (25.64%). The 12 plants per m2 had obtained the highest number of seeds per head, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index. Also, Sup. A cultivar with 12 plants per m2 had high oil percentage. It seems that under Isfahan condition, 12 plants per m2 with Sup. A cultivar were suitable.

 

23. S. M. Reza Hejazi-Dehaghani [Effect of plant density and planting arrangement on phenological stages of sunflower grown in Isfahan, Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 139-141 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : hejazi14@yahoo.com)

Abstract

An experiment was conducted as a split factorial design in randomized complete blocks with three replications at Agricultural Research Center of Kabootar-Abad, Isfahan, during agronomic year 2008 to study the effect of plant density and planting arrangement on growing stages of sunflower cultivars. Single and twin row cultivations were considered as main plot and the combination of Master, Lakumka and Hysun36 cultivars with density of 8, 10 and 12 plants per square meters as sub-plot. The results indicated that the effect of plant density and row spacing on such traits as the number of days from planting to star, the end of flowering and physiological maturity was meaningful. Also, the difference of cultivars in light of all studied traits was considerable at the 1% level of probability. The interaction effect of row spacing and density on the days required for beginning of flowering and physiological maturity became considerable at the 1% level of probability. The interaction of row and cultivar, the interaction of plant density and cultivar as well as the interaction between row spacing, plant density and cultivar on the number of days required to star and physiological maturity were also meaningful. Among studied cultivars, Master cultivar was more premature than others.

 

24. MOHAMMAD ALBAJI*, MAJID BEHZAD, SAEED BOROOMAND NASAB, ABD ALI NASERI, ALI SHAHNAZARI, MOOSA MESKARBASHEE, FARAMARZ JUDY AND MEHDI JOVZI [Investigation on the effects of conventional irrigation (CI), regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and partial root zone drying (PRD) on yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 142-154 (2011). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Faculty of Water Science Engineering Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, P. O. Box 61357-8-3151, Iran *(e-mail : m_albaji2000@yahoo.co.uk)

Abstract

This study was carried out to understand the yield and yield components response of sunflower to conventional and limited irrigation and to determine the irrigation method which gives the greatest production per unit irrigation water in the Ahwaz Plain of Iran. Three irrigation methods i. e. conventional irrigation [CI, both sides (both furrows) of plant row watered; applied 100% of water requirements during the whole season], regulated deficit irrigation [RDI70 and RDI50, both sides of plant row watered; applied 100% of water requirements upto V8 stage (Plant with 8 leaves) then 70 and 50%, respectively, thereafter] and partial root-zone drying [PRD70 and PRD50, both sides of plant row alternatively watered; applied 100% of water requirements upto V8 stage (Plant with 8 leaves) then 70 and 50%, respectively, thereafter] with full (about 623 mm) or limited (50 and 70%) irrigation water, were applied to the hybrid Hysun 33 planted on loamy soil. The highest seed yield (6687.7 kg/ha) and oil yield (3553 kg/ha) were obtained from the CI treatment, and the lowest seed yield was related to PRD50 and RDI50 irrigation treatments (3537.3 and 3615.3 kg/ha, respectively). Also, the lowest oil yield was obtained from the RDI50 and PRD50 irrigation treatments (1464.3 and 1584.7 kg/ha, respectively). A linear relationship was found between irrigation (mm) and seed and oil yield (kg/ha) at 99% level of confidence (R2=0.99 and R2=0.98, respectively). Seed and oil yield responded linearly to applied water i. e. the seed and oil yield increased as irrigation amount was increased. Therefore, we confirm that CI irrigation treatment is the best choice for maximum yield under the local conditions, but this irrigation scheme must be re-considered in areas where water resources are more limited.

 

25. Ali Soleymani*, Seyed Ali Emami, Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian and Leila Naranjani [Evaluation of suitable planting dates and autumn safflower cultivars under climatic condition of Isfahan, Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 155-162 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

In order to evaluate the effects of different planting dates on autumn safflower cultivars in Isfahan region, an experiment was conducted in 2008 at Culture Experimental and Research Centre, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch. A split plot layout with randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Main plots were planting dates (Oct. 19th, Nov. 3rd and Nov. 18th) and sub-plots were four cultivars (Arak, Isfahan, Elite and Zarghan). The results showed that delayed planting date significantly decreased in dry matter of leaf, stem, head, and total dry matter. Maximum grain yield was obtained at Oct. 19th planting date and difference with Nov. 3rd and Nov. 18th planting dates was significant. Significantly higher dry matter of leaf, stem, head, total dry matter and harvesting index (HI) were produced by Elite cultivar, and significantly higher grain and oil yields were produced. The interactions of planting date with cultivars for total dry matter and grain yield were significant. Elite cultivar at different planting dates produced highest grain yield. Also reduction in the length of growing season, due to the delay in planting, reduced the plant ability to spread its canopy on time, and to use the environmental potential. On the basis of the results obtained, Oct. 19th planting date and Elite cultivar might be suitable under the condition similar to the present study.

 

26. R. A. Patel, J. J. Patel and A. S. Patel [Maximizing castor yield through drip irrigation and nitrogen under different planting geometries in sandy clay loam soil]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 163-166 (2011). Department of Agronomy Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India

Abstract

An experiment was conducted on sandy clay loam soil of Agricultural Research Station for irrigated crops, Anand Agricultural University, Thasra, Gujarat during late kharif season of the year 2006-07 and 2007-08 in order to maximize castor yield through drip irrigation and nitrogen levels under different plant geometries. Higher values of seed yield and yield attributing characters were recorded under pair row planting (180-60-180 cm) × 60 cm as compared to the normal planting (120 × 60 cm). Irrigation at 0.8 alternate day fraction pan evaporation (ADFPE) through drip recorded the highest growth and yield attributes and castor yield. Application of 100% RDN through fertigation produced significantly the highest castor yield. Castor crop sown through pair row planting (180-60-180) × 60 cm apart and irrigated through drip at 0.8 ADFPE in conjunction with nitrogen fertigation @ 100% recommended dose (30% basal and 70% in four equal splits at one month interval).

 

27. A. AYESHA PARVEEN* AND C. K. PADMAJA [Efficacy of fungi and actinomycetes in converting municipal solid waste (MSW) and water hyacinth (WH) into organic manure]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 167-172 (2011). Department of Botany Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore-641 043 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : ayesha_n2001@hotmail.com)

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degrading efficiency of the fungal consortium (cellulolytic fungi–Paecilomyces variotti and Chaetomium globosum, and actinomycetes–Streptomyces lavendulae and Thermobifida fusca) in converting the municipal solid waste (MSW) and water hyacinth (WH) mixture into an eco-friendly, nutrient enriched organic manure. The results revealed that the biomanure obtained by inoculation of fungal consortium into MSW and WH mixture was found to be efficient in enhancing the rate of decomposition within 90 days of biodegradation as they showed drastic reduction in the biochemical parameters like organic carbon (19.56%), cellulose (26.84%), phenol content (0.58 mg/g) and reducing sugars (0.33 mg/g). C : N ratio was narrowed down from 66 : 1 to 13 : 1, while nitrogen content increased to 1.50% from 0.59% compared to uninoculated MSW-WH compost.

 

28. Meisam Zargar, Hossein Najafi, Kiumars Fakhri, Saeed Mafakheri and Mansour Sarajuoghi [Agronomic evaluation of mechanical and chemical weed management for reducing use of herbicides in single vs. twin-row sugarbeet]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 173-178 (2011). Department of Agronomy Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Iran

*(e-mail : meisam.zargar@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Field experiment was conducted at Iranian Plant Protection Research Farm at Karaj in 2009 to evaluate the effects of planting patterns, times of mechanical control and herbicides application on weeds in sugarbeet. Treatments were arranged as a split-split plot within a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Three planting patterns considered as main-plot [(including single row spaced 50 cm, single row spaced 60 cm and twin row spaced 60 cm), three times of mechanical control as sub-plot (including mechanical weed control at 4-6, 10-12 and 14-16 leaves stage of sugarbeet) and two herbicides as sub-sub-plot (including metamitron+(phenmedipham +desmedipham+ethofumesat) and triflusulfuron-methil+ (phenmedipham+desmedipham +ethofumesat)]. Results indicated significant effects of times of mechanical control and herbicie on weed density and biomass (Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus). In addition, machanical weed control at 4-6 leaves stage of sugarbeet caused the most reduction in biomass of Datura stramonium. Planting pattern had only significant effect on biomass and density of C. album. Furthermore, approximately all of treatments had significant effects on root yield, but approximately other sugarbeet components were not affected by treatments as appropriate as sugar yield. Totally, best results were achieved in metamitron+(phenmedipham+ desmedipham+ ethofumesat) and weed control at 4-6 leaves stage that had the most reduction in weeds density and biomass.

 

29. S. V. S. Gangadhara Rao [Genetic divergence in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 179-181 (2011). Agricultural Research Station Peddapuram, East Godavari District (Andhra Pradesh), India

Abstract

Seventy-six sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm lines from different parts of India were evaluated for divergence at Agricultural Research Station, Yellamanchili, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study indicated that the genotypes may or may not be grouped into same cluster irrespective of their geographical origin. Nine clusters were formed and the parents from the respective clusters were selected based on their cluster distances and cluster means for hybridization programme.

 

30. PANKAJ GARG, D. P. PANDEY AND DHIRENDRA SINGH [Genetic variability for yield and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 182-184 (2011). Department of Crop Improvement CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India

Abstract

Genetic variability for 17 yield and quality traits was studied in 48 genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Both phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were high for grains/panicle, grain yield/plant and gel consistency. Hence, direct selection of these traits will prove effective. Total tillers/plant and effective tillers/plant at maturity had moderate PCV, GCV and genetic advance coupled with moderate heritability. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance for grains/panicle, grain yield/plant and GC indicated the influence of additive gene action and consequently a likelihood of high genetic gain from phenotypic selection.

 

31. S. V. S. Gangadhara Rao [Heterosis and per se performance in kharif sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 185-187 (2011). Agricultural Research Station Peddapuram, East Godavari District (Andhra Pradesh), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Yellamanchili during kharif 2008 on heterosis and per se performance in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Six parents viz., G-2, S. I. 3012, E-8, M. T. 101, Kayankulam-1 and Thilothama were crossed in diallel fashion without reciprocals and the resultant 15 F1s alongwith the parents were evaluated in randomized block design. It was found that the per se performance and heterosis over mid, better and standard parents were high in respect of seed yield in the cross E-8/M. T. 101 followed by G-2/M. T. 101 and S. I. 3012/M. T. 101. The cross E-8/M. T. 101 also recorded early duration with highest number of branches and tallest plant height.

 

32. C. RAJU, G. SATISH, R. G. RAJESAB, SHANTHAKUMAR AND ANULXMI NAYAK [Genetic variability created through biparental mating in bhendi [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 188-191 (2011). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka), India

Abstract

The study was also aimed at knowing relative efficiency of BIPs over F3 in turn release of genetic variability and knowing the shift in the association pattern of components of traits with fruit yield in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]. It is an important vegetable crop grown in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. India is the largest producer of okra covering an area of 3.58 lakh ha with an annual production of 35.24 lakh tonnes. The present investigation was carried out during kharif and summer seasons of 2007-08 at Agriculture Research Station, Hanumanamatti, UAS, Dharwad to study the nature and magnitude of variability generated for different quantitative traits in the population obtained by attempting crosses in F2 generation of four commercial single cross private bhendi hybrids i. e. safal, rasi, seminis and ph101. The biparental mating design was attempted in F2 generation of four commercial okra crosses. The plants involved in the cross also selfed simultaneously to obtain F3 progenies. The effectiveness of biparental mating was compared with conventional breeding method. The range, variance, heritability and genetic advance were higher in BIPs for all the characters studied except 100-seed weight. The utility of biparental matings in early segregating generations in okra is emphasized.

 

33. K. O. VAGHELA, R. T. DESAI, J. R. NIZAMA, J. D. PATEL and V. C. KODAPPULLY [Heterosis study for yield and yield components in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]].Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 192-194 (2011). Department of Agricultural Botany Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India

Abstract

A trial consisting of 37 genotypes comprising 28 hybrids, eight parents and one check Vaishali was planted during kharif 2007 at Achhalia, Bharuch and Navsari. Heterosis over mid parent (MP), better parent (BP) and over standard check Vaishali was calculated for grain yield and its components. The evaluation of hybrids suggested that a substantial degree of heterosis over mid parent, better parent and standard check was prevalent in several hybrids. Unlike other pulses, presence of considerable natural outcrossing, availability of genetic male sterile lines and now stable cytoplsmic genic male sterility system with good seed production technology in pigeonpea favour hybrid seed production. The hybrids viz., ICPL-88039 x BDN-2, ICPL-88039 x ICPL-87119, BSMR-736 x ICPL-87119, ICPL-87119 x GT-1 and ICPL-87 x BSMR-736 showing maximum heterosis for yield and its components hold promise.

 

34. Sharon Aravind, N. Shoba, K. Rajamani and S. Manonmani [Correlation studies in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 195-197 (2011). Department of Spices & Plantation Crops Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

Ten varieties of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated at the orchard, Department of Spices & Plantation Crops, Coimbatore during the period of 2008-09. The data recorded on yield and yield attributing characters revealed that the characters viz., number of tillers, number of leaves, leaf breadth, weight of mother rhizomes, weight of primary rhizomes, length of mother rhizomes, leaf length and plant height had significant and positive correlations with that of yield which indicates that these components are amenable for simultaneous improvement with that of yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed positive and direct effect on rhizome yield was maximum for weight of primary rhizomes (0.666) followed by leaf length (0.405), number of leaves (0.3828) and weight of mother rhizomes (0.292). Since the correlation of these characters with yield is positive and the indirect effect is positive and high, direct selection of these traits can be practised for improving the yield.

 

35. V. THIRUMALA RAO, A. R. G. RANGANATHA­­­­­­ and M. GANESH [Evaluation of new inbreds, populations and hybrids for autogamy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 198-202 (2011). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

Abstract

Ninety-four genotypes including seven inbreds, 11 populations and six hybrids were evaluated for autogamy, geitonogamy and open pollination based on six characters, namely, head diameter, number of filled seeds, number of unfilled seeds, test weight, oil content and yield per plant under different treatments viz., selfing (SP), bagging with hand pollination (HP) and open pollination (OP). Mean seed set was highest in open pollination followed by bagging with hand pollination and lowest in self pollination. The investigations revealed that the hybrids recorded higher autogamy and geitonogamy (65.02 and 83.18%) followed by inbreds (63.65 and 82.84%) and populations (61.25 and 83.06%). Inbred lines GP-1080-2, GP- 517-1, GP-2150-1, ARM-250 and GP-1018-2 showed high rate of autogamy and these lines may be extensively used in future breeding programme to develop high self fertile populations and hybrids.

 

36. EROL BAYHAN* AND SELIME ÖLMEZ BAYHAN [Studies on survival rate, reproduction and biological parameters of corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch) on five corn cultivars]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 203-206 (2011). Department of Plant Protection Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey *(e-mail : erolbayhan@gmail.com)

Abstract

The development, survival rate, reproduction and biological parameters of the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) on five corn cultivars were evaluated at 25°C in laboratory conditions. The corn leaf aphid had longer nymphal development on CR 955 than the other cultivars. The lower percentage survival rate was observed on CR 955 than the others. The corn leaf aphid reared on AG 9229 had the highest fecundity (70.75 offspring/aphid). The net reproductive rate (Ro) was the lowest (70.85 offspring/aphid/generation) on AG 9229. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was lower on CR 955 than the other corn cultivars. CR 955 showed resistance to the pest.

 

37. BALDEV SHARMA AND SHAKHA SHARMA [Population behaviour of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis Leth. in different environmental conditions of Jammu region]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 207-210 (2011). Department of Zoology University of Jammu, Jammu (J & K), India

Abstract

Idioscopus clypealis is a serious pest of mango in Jammu region and causes a serious loss to the crop. For this reason studies were conducted in five different areas of Jammu region from April 2001 to March 2002. From the studies conducted it was found that hopper population was at peak during April-May depending on the study area and lowest during December-January. Moreover in Jammu region out of two species found, it is I. clypealis which is found in abundant and causes a great damage to mango crop.

 

38. AZADEH KARIMY, ALIREZA JALALIZAND* AND AHMADREZA GOLPARVAR [Response of Tetranychus urticae and predatory bug, Orius albidipennis to cucumber and strawberry volatiles]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 211-216 (2011). Department of Plant Protection Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Postal Code 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : Jalalizand@khuisf.ac.ir)

Abstract

Herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPV) is one of the most important agents in interaction between plant-herbivore-natural enemies that can affect searching behaviour of these insects. The effect of strawberry and cucumber volatiles studied by means of Y-tube olfactometer on female T. urticae of the same age had starved for 8 h on constant laboratory conditions. In this experiment, the response of spider mites in treatment with clean strawberry/clean cucumber and infested strawberry/infested cucumber with spider mite had no significant difference. The olfactometer trials to determine the effect of clean plants and infested plants on searching behaviour of generalist predator, O. albidipennis occurred with four treatments : (1) clean cucumber/infested cucumber, (2) clean strawberry/infested strawberry, (3) clean strawberry/clean cucumber and (4) infested strawberry/infested cucumber. The response of predatory bugs to clean cucumber/infested cucumber and clean strawberry / infested strawberry had a significant difference. Results indicated that predatory bugs did not have clear preference neither to cucumber nor strawberry and the only effective agent for them was induced volatiles, which relies in response of spider mites herbivory. These results may help us to understand the tritrophic interaction between plant-herbivore-biological agents that are important to integrated pest management programmes.

 

39. Y. M. SOMASEKHARA, RADHA D. KALE AND J. A. HOSMATH [Effect of culture filtrates of vermicompost against pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 217-221 (2011). Department of Plant Pathology University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata) is the burning problem in India and China. The preliminary research was undertaken to know the effect of culture filtrates of vermicompost on growth and spores germination of C. fimbriata. The filtrates of vermicompost were obtained from the composted leaf materials of Anacardium occidentale, Azadirachta indica, Calotropis gigantea, Eucalyptus citrodora, Gliricidia maculata and flowers of Jasminum grandiflorum, Parthenium hysterophorus, Pongamia pinnata, Syzygium cumini, Tamarindus indica and Diospyrus spp. The filtrates were mixed with potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium in 1 : 1 proportion and sterilized in autoclave. The 2 mm infected bits were placed on PDA medium. The observation on fungal growth was recorded. The germination of endoconidia, exoconidia and ascospores was studied with above filtrates of vermicompost. The filtrates collected from lantana, neem, calotropis, jasmine flower extract and neem completely inhibited the growth of C. fimbriata and resulted in least endoconidial, exoconidial and ascospore germination. However, in jasmine the endoconidia, exoconidia and ascospore germination was 0.00, 1.66 and 0.00%, respectively. In control, the endoconidial, exoconidial and ascospore germination was 35.81, 34.18 and 52.25%, respectively. The filtrates collected from vermicompost prepared from lantana, jasmine flower (waste materials obtained from oil extracted jasmine flower from the industries), neem leaf and ekka leaf inhibited the growth of pomegranate wilt pathogen, C. fimbriata in vitro conditions. However, further field studies are essential for the management of pomegranate wilt disease.

 

40. Gagan Joshi, K. K. Mrig, Ram Singh and S. Singh [Screening of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species) against mushroom flies]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 222-225 (2011). Department of Entomology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

Abstract

Six species of Pleurotus, namely, P. sajor-caju, P. florida, P. ostreatus, P. sapidus, P. eous and P. eryngii were screened for the incidence of sciarid fly, Bradysia tritici and phorid fly, Megaselia sandhui during February-March (2008 and 2009). There was moderate infestation by sciarid fly larvae except P. eous which showed high infestation by sciarid fly larvae, while all the species were highly infested by phorid fly.

 

41. victoria, pushpa kharb*, parveen batra, santosh dhillon and v. k. chowdhury [In vitro micropropagation of medicinal air yam (Dioscorea bulbifera)]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 226-229 (2011). Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(pkharab@hau.ernet.in)

Abstract

An efficient protocol for micropropagation in air yam (D. bulbifera L.) from nodal and shoot tip explants has been developed. MS medium supplemented with adenine sulphate (15.0 mg/l) and kinetin (2.0 mg/l) was found to be the best medium for shoot regeneration (100%) from nodal explants. Multiple shoots (15-20 shoots/explant) were regenerated after 15-20 days of sub-culturing on the same medium. The shoot induction response of 27.1% was observed from shoot tip explants with 2-3 shoots/explant on the above medium. The regenerated shoots were separated aseptically and transferred to rooting media. Best rooting response (97.8%) was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l NAA.

 

42. LI PU HAN, XINGQIANG GUO, YONGJING YU, LIUSHEN DUAN, MANJUNATHA S. RAO AND GUANG HUI XIE* [Effect of prohexadione-calcium, maleic hydrazide and glyphosine on lodging rate and sugar content of sweet sorghum]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 230-238 (2011). Biomass Engineering Center College of Agronomy and Biotechnology China Agricultural University, 100193 Beijing, P. R. China *(e-mail : xiegh@cau.edu.cn)

Abstract

Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been widely considered a potential feedstock for producing bio-fuel due to its advantage of being drought and salinity tolerance, low water requirement and food and fuel crop. One of the cultivation aspects which limits its high productivity is susceptibility of the existing varieties and hybrids to lodging. The present study focuses on a field experiment by applying plant growth retardants prohexadione-calcium (Ca) (2.25, 4.5 and 9.0 mg/m2), maleic hydrazide (1.8, 7.2 and 28.8 mg/m2) and glyphosine (18.0, 36.0 and 72.0 mg/m2) and a control of distilled water on the lodging sensitive variety, Yuantian-1, 20 days after the plant elongation. It was observed that neither glyphosine nor maleic hydrazide exhibited any significant effects on the plant lodging as the stalk length was not significantly shortened. Prohexadione-Ca has significantly shortened the elongated internodes at the middle of the plants, which in turn reduced the stalk length before heading. The lodging rate ranged between 14.8-53.0% on 21 days after treatment (DAT) and it was 16.6-27.6% on 38 DAT of prohexadione-Ca, compared with that of 85.7 and 68.2% for the control, respectively. The leaf blade length and the area at the 3rd and 4th orders and the angle between stem and leaf blade at the 4th order from top of the plants treated with prohexadione-Ca were significantly lower than the control. On the other hand, there was not any significant difference in biomass and grain yields between each of the prohexadione-Ca treatments and the control. However, the content of soluble sugar in sweet sorghum stems decreased dramatically after the application of prohexadione-Ca, causing substantial reduction in sugar yield.

 

43. YAN Yanhong, YANG Wenyu* AND ZHANG Xinquan [Effect of uniconazole on degradation of cotyledon’s reserve material during germination of soybean seed]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 239-245 (2011). College of Agronomy Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an, Sichuan, 625014, China *(e-mail : wenyu.yang @263.net)

Abstract

For a better understanding of the effects of uniconazole on the germination of soybean seed, some germination items of seeds and the metabolism of carbon and nitrogen in the germination process of uniconazole power treated seeds on three materials Chengdou 9, Chengdou 13 and Gongxuan 1 were studied. The results showed that the germination rate, germinating potential and radicle length were increased significantly; however, uniconazole most markedly reduced hypocotyl length. Meanwhile, the contents of free amino acids, soluble protein, the total nitrogen, soluble sugar and free fatty acid were reduced, but the content of fat was increased by uniconazole treated in the earlier process of germination; however, their performance was contrary in the later process of seed germination. This suggested that the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of cotyledons were delayed initially, but they would be higher than those of the control once germination starts by uniconazole treatment during seed germination, which is beneficial to degradation of cotyledon’s reserve material and seedling emergence.

 

44. H. S. Rudraprasad, V. K. Deshpande, C. P. Mallapur, S. I. Harlapur and B. N. Motagi [Seed quality and prediction of storability in F1 and F2 maize hybrids]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 246-250 (2011). Department of Seed Science and Technology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

An experiment was carried out at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during 2008 to evaluate the seed quality of F1 and F2 generation hybrids in comparison with two composite varieties. Mean germination percentage of 10 F2 generation hybrids (99.20%) was on par with F1 generation hybrids (97.85%). Average speed of germination, root length, shoot length, vigour index and seedling dry weight of F2 generation were significantly lower, while EC values for seed leachate were higher as compared to the F1 generation hybrids. The performance of F2 generation seeds as influenced by accelerated ageing test revealed the significant reduction in germination percentage, speed of germination, shoot and root length, vigour index and seedling dry weight as compared to F1 hybrid seeds.

 

45. C. V. KALPANA* AND C. K. PADMAJA [Efficacy of Aloe vera (L.) leaf peeling extract on the germination of clusterbean and chilli seeds]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 251-253 (2011). Department of Botany Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore-641 043 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : cvkalps@gmail.com)

Abstract

An investigation was carried out to analyse the effect of Aloe vera leaf peeling extract on the germination percentage, vigour index and seedling growth of test crops, clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) and chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). The results of the study revealed that the application of undiluted, Aloe vera leaf peeling extract enhanced the germination percentage, vigour index and seedling growth of test crop seeds.

 

46. k. s. krishna* and d. nuthan [Effect of growth regulators on root and shoot parameters of some mulberry (Morus spp.) genotypes with different nodes and modes of planting]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 254-256 (2011). Department of Sericulture University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : kitta.krishna35@gmail.com)

Abstract

A comparative study on the methods (Flat bed, polythene bag and containers), varieties (V1, DD and M5), eye buds (Single, double and three eye-budded cuttings) and application of growth regulators viz., Indole butyric acid (IBA 200 ppm) and 2, 4-Dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D 25 ppm) was conducted on mulberry cuttings under open conditions. The results revealed that cuttings treated with IBA 200 ppm showed highest rooting percentage (57.66), number of roots (4.22) and length of longest root (3.07 cm). Among shoot parameters, number of sprouts per cutting (0.96) and numbes of leaves per cutting (2.68) were recorded in the same treatment (IBA 220 ppm) compared to 2, 4-D 25 ppm. Among mulberry genotypes, M5 showed significant results on root and shoot behaviour over V1 and DD. Similarly, flat bed method and three eye bud cuttings responded positively and more effective with respect to root and shoot behaviour of mulberry cutting at 90 days after planting.

 

47. Sayyed Mohammad Reza Hejazi-Dehaghani* and Bahram Majd-Nasiri [Role of yield components and other traits in determining the seed yield of common bean under different planting dates and densities using step-wise regression and correlation coefficient]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 257-260 (2011). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : hejazi14@yahoo.com)

Abstract

In order to determine the importance of role of seed yield components and other measured traits in the determination of seed yield in different dates and densities of common bean line 1-61-57, a field experiment was conducted in Dehaghan County during two agronomic years. The experiment was carried out as twice split plots in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The results showed the correlation between the number of offshoots and seed yield and also the correlation between the number of pods per plant and seed yield were very meaningful. The pattern of seed yield illustrated that the number of pods per plant, the days required for reaching the physiologic maturity, the number of offshoots and ultimately the plant height played the most major role in determining the seed yield of common bean line 1-61-57, according to importance.

 

48. C. V. KALPANA AND C. K. PADMAJA [Aloe vera (L.) leaf peeling extract and powder–A biochemical approach]. Res. on Crops 12 (1) : 261-262 (2011). Department of Botany Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore-641 043 (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

Aloe vera leaf peeling extract was tested for pH, ammoniacal nitrogen, phenol and total microbial count. The A. vera leaf peeling powder (100 g) was analysed for total NPK. A. vera leaf peeling extract was found to have the pH (4.97), ammoniacal nitrogen (2.5%), phenol (5500 µg/ml) and total microbial count (3 x 106 CFU/ml). The total NPK content of A. vera leaf peeling powder was found to be 1.40, 0.14 and 1.97%, respectively.