1. v. p. singh* and r. k. maiti [A review on factors affecting crop growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 1 (2) : 101-114 (2016). Gaurav Publications, Agricultural Research Information Centre Systematic Printers, Near Video Market, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The present paper makes a review on different aspects of seed physiology and seedling establishment of paddy. The crop growing conditions differ in different countries. Several studies related to the factors affecting seed viability of rice have been directed. Inadequate crop stands are common in dry land farming in India and other countries. Salinity causes a problem in rice growing areas of many countries. Salinity affects crop growth at different stages. Several ameliorative measures are adopted to reduce the salinity problems. Several factors affect stand establishment, among which low and high temperature and salinity are important. Low temperatures affect pollen viability and reproductive development of rice. Ameliorative measures are suggested to reduce salinity effect in rice growth. Genetics and biotechnology of salinity tolerance have been studied with a reasonable success. Besides other factors such as allelopathy, sound, weeds, methanogenesis, heavy metals and micronutrients have great impact on rice productivity.
2. r. k. maiti and v. p. singh* [A review on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seeds and seedling establishment]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 1 (2) : 115-126 (2016). Gaurav Publications, Agricultural Research Information Centre Systematic Printers, Near Video Market, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
This paper makes a review on research advances on sorghum seeds and seedling establishment. There exist genetic variabilities among sorghum genotypes for seed characteristics, chemical composition, seedling establishments under several abiotic stresses such as soil crust, drought, salinity and temperature. Some seedling traits are related to some stress resistance. There is a great necessity for the selection of genotypes tolerant to various stress factors and its utilization for genetic improvement for stress resistance in semi-arid tropics. Management strategy for good establishment is suggested.
3. V. P. SINGH* AND R. K. MAITI [Growth and productivity of pearlmillet as influenced by biotic factors-A review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 1 (2) : 127-133 (2016). Gaurav Publications, Agricultural Research Information Centre Systematic Printers, Near Video Market, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The present review discusses that several diseases affect the growth and productivity of pearl millet such as downy mildew (Sclerospora graminicola) and rust (Puccinia substriata). Among these, downy mildew causes devastating problem in some pearl millet growing areas leading to a severe yield reduction. Some studies have been undertaken to investigate the gravity of the problems, epidemiology of the disease and control measures as well as genetic improvement of these diseases with reasonable successes, specially in the case of downy mildew. Besides several minor diseases affecting pearl millet are reported. Insects and weeds are of minor importance in pearl millet.
4. R. K. MAITI AND V. P. SINGH* [Mechanisms of resistance to drought, temperature and salinity in bean crops–A review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 1 (2) : 134-161 (2016). Gaurav Publications, Agricultural Research Information Centre Systematic Printers, Near Video Market, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The productivity of Phaseolus bean and other crops is affected by various abiotic factors, of which drought, high and low temperatures and salinity are very important. The paper makes a revision of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of resistance to these stress factors. Sufficient studies have been undertaken to investigate its effects on the physiology and production of the crop and establishing parameters for the selection of cultivars tolerant to drought, high and low temperature and salinity and finally its mechanism of resistance. For example, in case of salinity, the resistant varieties should have capacity to compensate the ionic and osmotic disbalance caused by salinity and other stress factors. The physiological parameters used as parameters of sensitivity or resistance are indices of germination, growth rate, leaf area, dry weight and index of assimilation of carbon. The response of biochemical adaptation to these salinity and other stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris as observed in other organisms has been studied for genetic improvement of commercial varieties. Analysis has been made on the mechanism of osmoprotection which is related to the flow of water and nutrients and at the same time the process of signal transduction through hormones or other routes of transduction.
5. v. p. singh* and r. k. maiti [A review on seed physiology and chemical composition of cotton (Gossypium spp.)]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 1 (1) : 162-180 (2016). Gaurav Publications, Agricultural Research Information Centre Systematic Printers, Near Video Market, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The present paper makes a brief review on research trends on various aspects of seed quality, chemical composition and factors affecting germination, seedling emergence and seedling vigour in cotton. Considering pollen viability to be most essential for efficient cross pollination, an efficient in vitro technique is developed to test pollen viability. During seed development, several biochemical changes occur, but ecological conditions have great influence on chemical composition. Owing to high lipid contents, cotton seeds are utilized as animal feed for carp, broiler chickens, etc.
Different factors affect germination and seedling vigour. Seed viability decreased linearly during the storage period, but seeds treated with chemicals gave superior germination and vigour than control. Allochemicals promoted plant growth at lower concentration, but inhibited at higher concentration. Heavy metal Cd inhibits seedling germination. Under natural storage, the decrease in germinability is associated with changes like increased accumulation of total peroxide and malondialdehyde content and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase.
Conservation tillage improved cotton germination, emergence, dry matter and lint yield. High density usually gave faster and more uniform rates of radicle emergence than low density ones. Seedlings from heavier seeds gave greater rates of accumulation of fresh and dry weight, and quality and vigour indices were higher than those from light seeds. Chemical treatment with imidacloprid+tolylfluanid+ pencycuron gave better physiological quality than the other treatments.
Different abiotic factors affect germination, emergence and seedling vigour in cotton and the germination rate and percentage germination of the cotton seeds, exposed to high and low temperature, salinity, water stress, etc. It was confirmed that osmotic priming with polyethylene glycol is not effective in the case of cotton. The germination count, seedling dry weight decreased with decrease in moisture content of soil. Waterlogging decreased germination and shoot growth, while root length increased. It was reported that pre-sowing in potassium humate (PH) solution (55% humic acid, 30% fulvic acid and 8% potassium hydroxide) gave good seedling growth and good stand in the field.
Increase in salinity decreases germination and seedling growth in cotton, but pre-soaking in salinity solution improves salinity tolerance in cotton. In addition, the percentage and rate of seed germination and percentage of normal seedlings were increased by increasing both salinity and drought levels. Salinity induced changes in alpha-amylase and protease activities and associated metabolism in cotton varieties during germination and early seedling growth stages. Salt tolerance of cotton plants at seedling emergence stage may be ameriolated/regulated by soaking seeds in Pix (DPC) and CaCl solutions.
Cotton seeds are infested with several fungal pathogens, affecting thereby germination and seedling emergence, but different ameriorative measures are adopted to prevent the incidence and gravity of fungal pathogens viz., additions of graphites with fungicides. It was assessed that the synthesis of phenolic compounds induced by infection with Fusarium is associated with the mechanism of resistance. Seed germination and seedling growth were best and fungal infection lowest with encapsulation with gypsum+bentonite or Sepiret 6182 combined with fungicides.