U. LOPEZ DOMINGUEZ, R. K. MAITI, P. WESCHE EBELING1, R. G. RAMIREZ L.
AND J. VERDE STAR [Agrobiological factors influencing the productivity
and forage quality of some pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.
Br. emend Stuntz] cultivars in Marin, Nuevo leon]. Res. on Crops
2 (3) : 263-277 (2001). Postgraduate Division, Facultad de Ciencias
Biologícas, Universidad aútonoma de Nuevo León, APD. F-16, C. P. 66450,
San Nicolas de los Garza, N. L., México
study was undertaken to determine some factors which influence the forage
yield and quality of pearl millet introduced in Mexico from ICRISAT.
The genotypes responded differently depending on the plant environment
like planting date, moisture availability and fertilization. These environments
affected the productive behaviour and also nutritional forage quality
indicating that manipulation of environments could improve yield and
quality of pearl millet forage. Correlations among biological and nutritional
quality were significant. Forage yield was associated consistently with
plant height, leaf, tiller, internode number and stem diameter. These
components varied among cultivars, water levels and crop cycles. Genotype
x fertilization interaction was significant in all crop cycles. The
optimum nutrient content of a pearl millet genotype depends on the environmental
conditions such as water level, fertilization, plant density and planting
A. K. CHAUBEY, M. K. KAUSHIK AND S. B. SINGH [Response of hybrid
pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) to graded levels of nitrogen and
phosphorus]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 278-282 (2001). G. B.
P. U. A. & T. Research Station, Ujhani-243 639 (U. P.), India
A field experiment was conducted during kharif seasons of 1996
and 1997 on sandy loam soil at G. B. Pant University of Agriculture
& Technology Research Station, Ujhani (Budaun). The results showed that
application of 125 kg N+60 kg P2O5/ha gave significantly higher grain
(25.64 q/ha) and stover yield (68.00 q/ha) of hybrid pearl millet.
MIRZA KARIM BAIG, H. V. NANJAPPA AND B. K. RAMACHANDRAPPA [Weed dynamics
due to different organic sources of nutrients and their effect on growth
and yield of maize (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) :
283-288 (2001). Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences,
GKVK, Bangalore-560 065, India
A field experiment was carried out at Agronomy Field Unit, Main Research
Station, Hebbal, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore during
kharif season of 1999-2000. The number of green leaves per plant and
plant height differed significantly due to organic manures at 60 days
after sowing (DAS). Compost @ 10 t/ha alongwith recommended dose of
N, P and K (150 : 75 : 40) at 60 DAS recorded maximum number of green
leaves per plant (10.73) and maximum plant height (171.1 cm) which could
be attributed to presence of lesser number of monocot weeds (19.65/0.25
m2), dicot weeds (15.33/0.25 m2) and sedges (1.0/0.25 m2). There were
higher leaf area and leaf area index (98.12 cm2 and 0.232) in poultry
manure @ 10 t/ha because of lesser weed population and more number of
green leaves/plant, but at 60 DAS there was increase in weed population
and reduction in number of green leaves leading to reduction in leaf
area and leaf area index (394.552 cm2 and 1.243). Weed-free throughout
crop growth period resulted in maximum yield (4670 kg/ha). Among all
other treatments, FYM @ 10 t/ha alongwith recommended dose of N, P and
K recorded significantly higher yield of maize (3761.57 kg/ha) due to
presence of comparatively lesser weed biomass (2542.73 kg/ha). poultry
manure @ 10 t/ha was having highest monocot weed population at 60 DAS
(36.99/0.25 m2) but dicot weed population was highest in poultry manure
@ 10 t/ha alongwith recommended dose of N, P and K. Vermicompost @ 10
t/ha was having higher sedges population (11.66) at 30 DAS. Poultry
manure 10 t/ha alongwith recommended dose of N, P and K recorded higher
weed biomass (3221.45 kg/ha). Digitaria marginata, legasca molis and
Eleusine coracana population was significantly higher in poultry manure
@ 10 t/ha, compost @ 10 t/ha and vermicompost @ 10 t/ha alongwith recommended
dose of N, P and K, respectively.
V. MANIVANNAN, K. THANUNATHAN, V. IMAYAVARAMBAN, N. RAMANATHAN AND R.
SINGARAVEL [Foliar application of nutrients : A low cost technology
for yield maximisation in rice-fallow pulse]. Res. on Crops 2
(3) : 289-292 (2001). Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University,
Annamalainagar-608 002 (T. N.), India
Field experiments were carried out at Annamalai University Experimental
Farm, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the efficacy of foliar
nutrition on the yield and economics of rice-fallow blackgram cv. ADT
3. The treatment consisted of foliar application of DAP on 30 and 45
days after sowing (DAS), Microsol on 15, 30 and 45 DAS with and without
Rhizobium seed treatment and a control with no foliar application and
Rhizobium seed treatment. The results clearly showed that grain yield
(1948.33 and 1693.66 kg ha-1), haulm yield (3916.00 and 3697.33 kg ha-1)
and B : C ratio (9.75 and 8.49) in the first and second crop, respectively,
were higher with foliar application of Microsol (NPK+Chelated micronutrients)
at 15, 30 and 45 DAS. Maximum net income of Rs. 33225.6 and 28459.5
ha-1 in the first and second crop, respectively, were obtained when
foliar application of Microsol (NPK+Chelated micronutrients) was given
at 15, 30 and 45 DAS. The lowest net income (Rs. 10236.4 and 7781.6
ha-1) and B : C ratio (5.60 and 4.49) in the first and second crop,
respectively, were obtained in the control treatment (without foliar
M. GOVERDHAN AND B. BHASKER REDDY [Influence of methods of irrigation
on establishment of irrigated dry crops in rice fallows]. Res. on
Crops 2 (3) : 293-296 (2001). Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Palem-509 215, India
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season on sandy loam soil
having shallow water table of College of Agriculture Farm Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad. Germination per cent of four crops (groundnut, mustard, sunflower
and blackgram) was tested under different methods of irrigation (Sprinkler
followed by BBF and check basin). When irrigation was given with different
methods, surface flooding by check basin method (6.82 cm depth of irrigation
water) resulted in excess moisture condition which caused oxygen stress
in the seed zone thereby affecting the germination and stand establishment
(62.08%). On the other hand, irrigation with sprinkler method facilitated
to apply limited and required quantity of water and higher per cent
of germination and stand establishment (87.92% of crops). In BBF method
of irrigation though the initial crop stand establishment was inferior
to sprinkler but was significantly superior to check basin method of
S. K. SUBEHIA [Direct and residual effect of Udaipur rock phosphate
as a source of P to wheat-soybean cropping system in a western Himalayan
soil]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 297-300 (2001). Department of Soil
Science, Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H.
a field experiment, the direct effect of Udaipur rock phosphate alone
and in combination with different organic manures was compared with
superphosphate on wheat and the residual effect was studied on sybean.
It was found that use of rock phosphate in conjunction with different
organic manures proved superior to its use without these manures. The
residual effect of superphosphate was similar to that of rock phosphate+organic
manures but poultry manure proved significantly superior over other
two sources tried.
B. VIJAY KUMAR AND V. PRAVEEN RAO1 [Mustard growth and yield sensitivity
to timing of evapotranspiration deficits]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) :
301-308 (2001). Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad-500 030 (M. S.), India
A field study was conducted during 1995-96 and 1996-97 on a sandy loam
soil to examine the sensitivity of growth and yield of mustard to evapotranspiration
deficits imposed at specific crop-growth sub-periods. The crop in fully
irrigated control (W-W-W) treatment showed beneficial effects on growth
and yield components which resulted in maximum mean seed yield of 1571.3
kg/ha. The crop was insensitive to evapotranspiration deficits at vegetative
period (D-W-W) as evident from low yield reduction factor (YRF=0.5592)
and there was not any significant reduction in seed yield relative to
fully irrigated control. But the crop was found to be highly sensitive
to evapotranspiration deficits at flowering-pod initiation & addition
(YRF=1.9117) and pod filling periods (YRF=2.0971) and their combination
growth sub-periods (YRF=1.4915 to 2.0663), which significantly reduced
(25.9 to 85.0%) the seed yield in comparison to W-W-W. Lowest seed yield
(234.5 kg/ha) resulted from severe evapotranspiration deficits from
flowering to maturity period. Hence, under deficient water supply situations
to minimize yield losses available water should be directed to pod filling
and flowering-pod initiation & addition crop-growth sub-periods.
GYANENDRA TIWARI AND V. K. AGRAWAL [Inter-relationship study of morphological
yield attributes and yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 309-312 (2001). Department of Plant physiology,
J. N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur-482 004 (M. P.), India
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi seasons of 1996-97
and 1997-98 at Research Farm, Department of Plant Physiology, JNKVV,
Jabalpur (M. P.). The study revealed that the morphological yield attributing
parameters of linseed crop viz., number of branches, number of nodes,
number of effective nodes, effective nodal length, number of filled
capsules, number of seeds per capsule and number of seeds per plant
had significantly positive correlation with biological and seed yield
of linseed crop except plant height and number of capsules per plant.
In addition, seed yield was correlated positively with biological yield
and harvest index, whereas biological yield had negative correlation
with harvest index (HI). All these parameters were associated within
9. A. V. RAMANJANEYULU AND B. BUCHA REDDY [Studies on bollworm
incidence, growth and yield of hybrid cottons in intercropping system].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 313-316 (2001). Department of Agronomy, Acharya
N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30 (A.
field experiment was laid out in a randomised block design (factorial)
during kharif season of 1999 on an Alfisol, to study the influence of
intercropping groundnut and soybean in hybrid cotton under different
fertilizer schedules, on bollworm incidence (%). The hybrid cotton NHH-44,
intercropping of soybean in cotton and F2 fertilizer schedule were better
to be followed so as to manage the bollworm incidence and obtain better
crop growth and seed cotton yield.
R. K. SHARMA, V. SINGH, S. CHAUHAN AND R. A. SHARMA [Studies on influence
of various levels and sources of sulphur on seed yield and biochemical
composition of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Res. on Crops
2 (3) : 317-319 (2001). JNKVV College of Agriculture, Indore-452 001
(M. P.), India
A field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Indore during
the kharif seasons of 1996 and 1997 on medium black clay soil to study
the influence of various levels and sources of sulphur on yield and
biochemical composition of soybean. Highest seed yield, protein and
oil content were recorded due to application of 50 kg S/ha regardless
of sources. Amongst different sources, gypsum proved most effective
followed by agricultural pyrites and elemental sulphur, respectively.
Highest soybean seed yield, oil and protein content of 2257 kg/ha, 20.51
and 41.29% were recorded due to 50 kg S/ha through gypsum, respectively.
S. KUMARAN AND M. SUBRAMANIAN [Effect of plant population and methods
of nutrient application on yield and economics of blackgram]. Res.
on Crops 2 (3) : 320-322 (2001). Agricultural College and Research Institute,
Killikulam, Vallanadu (Tamil Nadu), India
experiments were conducted to study the effect of plant population and
methods of nutrient application on yield and economics of blackgram.
Adoption of 40 plants m-2 (25 x 10 cm) resulted in higher grain yield,
net return ha-1 and B : C ratio than 50 plants m-2 (20 x 10 cm) and
33 plants m-2 (30 x 10 cm). Seed treatment with ammonium molybdate 25
ppm+ZnsO4 100 ppm+FeSO4 100 ppm and foliar application of DAP 1%+urea
0.5%+MgSO4 0.5%+ZnSO4 0.25% produced maximum grain yield and monetary
S. KUMARAN AND M. SUBRAMANIAN [Influence of plant population and
methods of nutrient application on yield of blackgram]. Res. on
Crops 2 (3) : 323-326 (2001). Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College
and Research Institute, Killikulam-628 252 (Tamil Nadu), India
were undertaken for studying the influence of plant density and methods
of nutrient application on yield of blackgram at Agricultural College
and Research Institute, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu during kharif 1995 and
summer 1995. A plant population of 40 plants m-2 increased leaf area
index (LAI), net assimilation rate (NAR) and grain yield during both
the seasons. Highest root nodules plant-1, crop growth rate, specific
leaf weight and relative growth rate were maximum at higher plant density
(50 plants m-2). Seed treatment with ammonium molybdate 25 ppm+ZnSO4
100 ppm+FeSO4 100 ppm and foliar application of nutrients with DAP 1%+urea
0.5%+MgSO4 0.5%+ZnSO4 0.25% recorded significantly highest leaf area
index, specific leaf weight, crop growth rate, relative growth rate,
net assimilation rate and grain yield of blackgram during both the seasons.
ARUN KUMAR AND B. S. MOR [To analyse the growth rates in area, production
and productivity of major crops in Haryana]. Res. on Crops 2 (3)
: 327-331 (2001). Department of Agricultural Economics, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India
the production of rice, the area effect was more than yield effect and
their interaction effect was more than the area effect and yield effect.
In case of wheat, the area and yield effects were almost same but their
interaction effect was more. For the increase in the production of rapeseed
& mustard, the area effect was more than the yield effect but their
interaction effect was more than the area and yield effect jointly.
In case of cotton (American) the production has increased mainly due
to increase in area, very less due to decrease in yield. In case of
gram, negative area effect exceeded the yield effect, but in case of
sugarcane the positive yield effect exceeded the negative area effect.
However, in case of cotton (desi), the negative area effect exceeded
the positive yield effect. There was an urgent need to check the decreasing
trend in the area under gram and desi cotton. The production of cotton
(American), rapeseed and mustard can be further increased by increasing
14. R. AMUTHA AND C. RAJENDRAN [Effect of growth regulating chemicals
on yield and quality of Thompson seedless grapes]. Res. on Crops
2 (3) : 332-337 (2001). Department of Crop Physiology, Agricultural
College and Research Institute, Killikulam-628 252 (Tamil Nadu), India
seedless grape vines were sprayed with different growth regulating chemicals,
namely, vinin-22 (0.4%), ethephon (500 ppm), cycocel (500 ppm), raseek
(1.0%) and methanol (5.0%) at 45, 60, 45 and 60 days after pruning.
The influence of chemicals on yield and quality parameters was recorded
at ripening and harvest stages. Results of the studies revealed that
two sprays of methanol–one at 45 and the another at 60 days after pruning
recorded the maximum yield and that the vines that received two sprays
of either ethephon or raseek or methanol produced fruits of superior
quality in terms of increased content of sugar (sweetness) and decreased
content of starch and acidity. Earliness in ripening was observed in
single spray of ethephon given at 60 days after pruning.
M. SHESH0U MADHAV1, B. N. RAO, S. SINGH AND P. C. DEKA [In vitro
shoot tip grafting in Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Khasimandarin].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 338-345 (2001). Department of Biotechnology, Assam
Agricultural University, Jorhat (Assam), India
Study has been taken up to standardize the different factors affecting
shoot tip grafting in Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Khasimandarin. Higher
rate of success (60%) was obtained in shoot tip grafting when a 2-week
old etiolated seedling of trifoliate orange was used as a rootstock.
Scion (Citrus reticulata) size of 0.2-0.3 mm (meristem dome plus three
leaf primordial) was found to be optimum for grafting. The cultured
axillary bubs were found to be ideal source for excision of scion. The
highest percentage of success was obtained when the scion was placed
in the horizontal incision of inverted "T" shaped cut made at the top
of the decapitated epicotyl. Incorporation of GA3 or BAP at concentration
of 1% (w/v) at the graft site during grafting induced the growth of
scion. Grafted plants developed 2-3 leaves after culturing on MS medium
(IG0) supplemented with 4 mg l-1 (w/v) thiamine, sucrose 7.5% (w/v)
and without growth regulators within 60 days of culture. The successful
grafted plantlets were subsequently transferred to soil and 90% plantlets
were established in the soil. These plantlets were maintained in aphid
proof cage to prevent re-infection of virus through aphids. Preliminary
results of indexing indicated recovery of plantlets free from citrus
tristeza virus (CTV) and exocortis. Virus-free plantlets showed no reversion
to juvenile phase.
M. MURUGAN AND G. GOPINATH [Effects of organic and inorganic mulches
on growth and flowering of crossandra (Crossandra undulaefolia Salisb.)
cv. Soundarya]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 346-350 (2001). Division of
Horticulture, G. K. V. K. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560
065 (Karnataka), India
were undertaken to know the effects of organic (dried leaves, coconut
fronds and coir pith) and inorganic (black polyethylene : 25, 50 and
100 µ) mulches on growth and flowering of crossandra (Crossandra undulaefolia
Salisb.) during 1999-2000 at the HRS, GKVK, UAS, Bangalore. The growth
attributes viz., height of plant, number of leaves per plant, number
of branches per plant and spread of plant, and flowering attributes
viz., days taken for fruit flowering and 50% of plants showing flowering
and duration of flowering per 50% of plants showing flowering and duration
of flowering per spike per season were significantly influenced by organic
and inorganic mulches. Black polyethylene mulch (25 or 50 or 100 µ)
influenced in obtaining higher statured plants, more number of leaves
and branches per plant and greater spread of plant, advanced flowering
and increased duration of flowering per spike.
T. R. BARATHKUMAR, K. MANIVANNAN AND P. CHEZHIAN [Studies on the
effect of phosphobacteria and plant growth regulators on growth, yield
and alkaloid content of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal.)].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 351-358 (2001). Department of Horticulture, Annamalai
University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Chidambaram (Tamil Nadu), India
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal.) is widely cultivated in India
as a valuable medicinal herb, rich in alkaloids found primarily in roots.
The experiment was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty
of Agriculture, Annamalai University at Annamalai Nagar during 1997-98.
the treatments were conducted with the seedling root dip of phosphobacteria
and the foliar spray of plant growth regulators viz., IBA at the rate
of 100 ppm, ethrel at the rate of 250 ppm, MH at the rate of 500 ppm
and CCC at the rate of 2000 ppm at 25, 55 and 85 days after transplanting.
The study revealed that the growth and yield attributes were favourably
influenced by the application of phosphobacteria alongwith plant growth
regulators except MH at the rate of 500 ppm. The combination of phosphobacteria
alongwith CCC at the rate of 2000 ppm retarded the plant height (58.47
cm) and simultaneously increased the root growth such as root diameter
(2.56 cm) and root yield (9.61 q ha-1). Similarly, ethrel at the rate
of 250 ppm retarded the plant height (68.41 cm) and produced more number
of roots (9.21). It has resulted in moderate root yield (7.76 q ha-1).
IBA at the rate of 100 ppm increased the plant height (101.04 cm) and
root length (62.87 cm) with moderate root yield (5.60 kg ha-1), whereas
MH at the rate of 500 ppm had the detrimental effect on the plant growth
and root yield. The total alkaloid content (1.302%) and alkaloid yield
(12.51 kg ha-1) were significantly enhanced by the application of CCC
at the rate of 2000 ppm.
V. H. BHUSE, B. L. LAD AND S. T. GHULE [Effect of various seed treatments
for enhancement of seed germination and seedling vigour in Senna (Cassia
angustifolia Vahl.)]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 359-363 (2001). Department
of Agricultural Botany, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413
722 (M. S.), India
freshly collected seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. were subjected
to various seed dormancy breaking methods viz., hot water soaking, H2SO4
scarification, thiourea soaking and GA3 soaking. Seed germination tests
were carried out by using Between Paper (B. P.) method at 30±20C. It
was found that H2SO4 scarification for 12 min gave highest germination
percentage (72.00). Highest seedling vigour index (882.97) was obtained
by soaking the seeds in 50 ppm GA3 for 16 h with 64.00% germination.
It can be further suggested that hot water soaking for 24 h could be
used for large-scale plantation being convenient and low cost method,
which gave 62.00% germination.
K. K. DEKA AND L. PASWAN [Growth performance of some standard chrysanthemum
(Dendranthema grandiflora Tzelev.) cultivars under the agro-climatic
conditions of Jorhat]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 364-367 (2001). Department
of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam),
standard cultivars of chrysanthemum were studied to ascertain their
suitability for growing as pot plant for decoration/exhibition purposes
under the agro-climatic conditions of Jorhat, Assam. The cultivars were
: Alfred Simson, Cossa Grandi, Grape Bowl, Litter Pink, Snow Ball and
Temptation. Significant differences were obtained among the cultivars
for three morphological and eight floral characters studied. Considering
these characters and comparison made among them revealed that cultivars
Snow Ball and Temptation could be ranked as the best cultivars for growing
as pot plant for exhibition/decoration purposes.
R. JAYAKUMAR, K. SATHIYABAMA AND V. RAVIKUMAR [Influence of mepiquatchloride
on bioefficacy and quality parameters of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 368-371 (2001). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural
Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T.
Field experiments were conducted in potato for two seasons during 1997
at Horticultural Research Station, Udhagamandalam, the Nilgiris, Tamil
Nadu, to study the effect of mepiquatchloride on potato var. Kufri Jyothi.
the texture of the soil was loamy sand and sandy clay loam for the first
and second seasons, respectively. The treatments constituted application
of mepiquatchloride at 50, 62.5, 75, 150 and 300 g/ha and mepiquatchloride
at 62.5 g/ha with endosulfan/mancozeb were compared with chlormequatchloride,
water spray and control. The mepiquatchloride was applied as single
dose at 45th day after sowing. The results indicated that foliar application
of mepiquatchloride consistently decreased the plant height with increasing
levels. The leaf area index and leaf chlorophyll content were significantly
increased by foliar application of mepiquatchloride at 62.5 g/ha alone
or in combination with endosulfan or mancozeb. Tuber yield was also
significantly higher under mepiquatchloride at 62.5 g/ha which was 28
and 16% over control during first and second seasons, respectively.
The quality parameters viz., starch and crude protein content was the
highest in the treatment with mepiquatchloride 62.5 g/ha+endosulfan
525 g/ha indicating the superiority of the treatment.
21. Alok Kumar Singh, Karuna Vishunavat, Jai prakash rai and asha
sinha [Effect of Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. and Alternaria
brassicicola (Schw.) Wiltshire on oil content of mustard seed].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 372-374 (2001). Department of Mycology & Plant
pathology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.) India
fungus, Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola infected seed samples
were collected from different locations of Uttar Pradesh. The seed oil
content was analyzed by soxhlet method and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
(NMR) technique. Seed oil content was observed to reduce with the seed
infection and reduction in seed size. It was found that oil content
reduced among the different seed categories in the order as healthy,
discoloured, shrivelled and shrivelled-discoloured seeds.Out of the
two methods used for estimation of oil content, NMR technique was found
to be more sensitive and accurate than Soxhlet method.
V. K. TIWARI, O. P. DUBEY AND S. K. TIWARI [Predatory status of paddy
pests in Jabalpur region]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 375-377 (2001).
Department of entomology, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya,
Jabalpur-482 004 (M. P.), India
During kharif 1999, eight predators viz., spider, dragonfly, damselfly,
predatory cricket, rove beetle, ground beetle, predatory grasshopper
and brown bug were recorded on rice crop at growth stage, while at maturity
stage only former four predators were recorded. The population of all
the predators was higher at growth stage than maturity stage except
damselfly. All the predators found feeding on hoppers except brown bug,
spider, dragonfly and damselfly were recorded as major predators of
this area on paddy pests.
B. K. MOHANTY1 AND A. M. PRUSTI [Studies on genetic distance in onion
seed crop]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 378-381 (2001). O. U. A. & T.
Regional Research Station, Bhawanipatna-766 001 (Orissa), India
analysis for seed yield and its components in 12 varieties of onion
revealed considerable variability among the accessions for all the traits.
The cultivars were grouped into six clusters which included three solitary
groups. Maximum inter-cluster distance (D2=34.76) was noticed between
clusters III and IV followed by II and VI. Genetic divergence was not
parallel to geographic distribution. Seed yield contributed maximum
to total divergence followed by 1000-seed weight, number of seed stalks/plant
and diameter of umbel. N 2-4-1 was identified as the most potent open
pollinated variety for seed production. Hybridization between clusters
IV (N 2-4-1) and III (Arka Pitamber and Arka Niketan) was suggested
to develop varieties having high seed yield potential basides high bulb
B. K. MOHANTY1 AND A. M. PRUSTI [Analysis of genetic distance in
tomato]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 382-385 (2001). O. U. A. & T. Regional
Research Station, Bhawanipatna-766 001 (Orissa), India
Studies on genetic diversity among 18 indigenous and exotic genotypes
of tomato for five economic characters revealed considerable variability
between the accessions. The genotypes were grouped into five clusters
including two solitary groups. Genetic diversity was not associated
with geographic distribution. Maximum inter-cluster distance (D2=1289.31)
was observed between the clusters I and V. The distance between clusters
I and III, III and V, III and IV, and IV and V was moderate. Number
of fruits/plant and average fruit weight contributed predominantly towards
the total divergence. A multiple crossing programme involving genotypes
belonging to clusters I, III and V was suggested to isolate promising
high yielding wilt tolerant recombinants with other desirable characters.
P. LOGANATHAN1, K. SARAVANAN AND J. GANESAN [Genetic divergence in
greengram (Vigna radiata L.)]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 386-389 (2001).
Department of Agricultural Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608
diversity was studied using multivariate analysis among 42 F3 and eight
varietal genotypes of Vigna radiata L. The grouping of material into
seven clusters indicated the presence of wide range of genetic diversity
among the genotypes. The study indicated no definite relationship between
geographic and genetic diversity and geographic diversity cannot be
used as an index of genetic diversity. In general, genetic diversity
among the parents was reflected in their progenies. Seed yield per plant
contributed maximum, accounting for 41.4% of total divergence. The diverse
clusters derived could be used in hybridization programme to generate
wide range of transgressive segregants in population to develop high
yielding greengram varieties with superior yield component traits.
P. SHANTHI1 AND J. SINGH [Genetic divergence for yield and its components
in induced mutants of Mahsuri rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops
2 (3) : 390-392 (2001). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Banaras
Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India
Genetic divergence using Mahalanobis's D2 statistic and Tocher's method
was studied for six qualitative characters, in a collection of 17 genotypes
of induced mutants mutated with gamma rays, EMS and their combinations
including one non-mutant mother variety of Mahsuri rice (Oryza sativa
L.). The genotypes differed significantly for six characters, namely,
plant height, number of tillers per plant, panicle length, number of
grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant, considered
collectively and were grouped into four clusters. The first cluster
contained nine genotypes (MM-89, MM-52, MM-53, MM-29, MM-23, MM-33,
MM-48, MM-75 and MM-2), the second, six (MM-67, MM-55, MM-5, MM-45,
MM-4 and Mahsuri), while third (MM-72) and fourth (MM-71) clusters were
monogenic. The genotypes belonging to clusters II and III having greater
cluster distance were recommended for inclusion in a hybridization programme
as they were expected to produce good segregants. Between all possible
pairs of crossing between the above two clusters, the pair MM-55 and
MM-72 was found to be most distant parents indicating that high genetic
variance could be expected in segregating generation.
SATYAVART, R. K. YADAVA AND GAJRAJ SINGH [Genetics of harvest index
and other related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 393-395 (2001). Department of Genetics, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India
The gene effects for harvest index and other related traits were studied
by using the parental, F1, F2, F3, BC1 and BC2 generations in a cross
: C306M10 x S948A1 of wheat [T. aestivum (L.) em. Thell.]. The generation
mean analysis revealed the presence of epistasis. The additive and non-additive
genetic components were important for the expression of harvest index,
plant height, number of tillers per plant, biological yield and grain
yield. Duplicate type of epistasis was observed for harvest index, number
of tillers per plant and grain yield.
P. LOGANATHAN, K. SARAVANAN AND J. GANESAN [Genetic variability in
greengram (Vigna radiata L.)]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 396-397 (2001).
Department of Agricultural Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608
Fifty genotypes of greengram were used to estimate genetic variability
for 10 quantitative characters. High PCV indicated the favourable effect
of environment for number of clusters per plant and seed yield per plant,
and high GCV suggested substantial amount of genetic variability for
number of pods per plant and seed yield per plant. High genetic advance,
additive gene action and phenotypic selection were effective for number
of pods per plant, seed yield per plant and number of seeds per pod.
Non-additive gene action, low heritability and low genetic advance were
noted for days to first flowering, plant height, number of branches
per plant, pod length and 100-seed weight. Diallel or recurrent selection
may be useful for improvement of yield and related characters.
P. LOGANATHAN, K. SARAVANAN AND J. GANESAN [Combining ability in
greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 398-403
(2001). Department of Agricultural Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608
7 x 7 diallel mating design in greengram, to know the combining ability,
revealed that the additive and non-additive gene actions were important
for plant height, total number of pods per plant and seed yield per
plant. The parent PDM 9249 had superior per se performance for seed
yield per plant, pod length, number of pods per plant, number of clusters
per plant and number of branches per plant. The parents PMB 27 and PDM
54 observed high gca effects and good general combiners for seed yield
per plant. The crosses PDM 54/ML 267 and PDM 54/ML 682 were superior
in their mean performance and gca effect for seed yield per plant. Pedigree
breeding system has been suggested for the improvement of greengram.
P. SHANTHI, E. SATYANARAYANA AND R. SAI KUMAR [Variability studies
for seedling parameters in elite high oil maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 404-408 (2001). Agricultural Research Station
(Maize), Amberpet, Hyderabad-500 013, India
Studies on seedling parameters in elite high oil maize genotypes revealed
significant differences. Shoot length to root length ratio followed
by root length and shoot fresh weight to root fresh weight ratio were
the most important seedling parameters to be considered for effective
selection of parental lines before initiating actual crossing programme.
Parental lines with the desirable seedling parameters were identified
for their future use in the development of high oil maize hybrids or
N. DEVASENA, V. MURALIDHARAN AND D. PUNITHA [Studies on combining
ability for yield related traits in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 409-413 (2001). Department of Oilseeds, Tamil
Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India
Combining ability analysis was carried out in an 8 x 8 diallel fashion
for 12 quantitative traits. The present study revealed the importance
of additive and non-additive gene action for all the traits. However,
gca variance was greater than sca variance for nine characters except
for 1000-seed weight and harvest index and revealed the predominance
of additive gene action in this experiment. The pattern of gca effects
showed that none of the parents was the best general combiner for all
the 12 characters. Among the parents, Co 1 was the best general combiner
for single plant yield, total dry matter production and 1000-seed weight.
Uma x TMV 6 was the best specific combination for single plant yield,
capsules in branches and total dry matter production. Uma x VRI 1 was
the best specific combination for 1000-seed weight and harvest index.
Other good specific combinations include TMV 6 x TNAU 142, Uma x TMV
3 and TMV 3 x TNAU 142. These specific combinations can be exploited
for heterosis breeding.
RAJANEESH SINGH AND HARIHAR RAM [Inheritance of days to flowering
and rust resistance in peas]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 414-418 (2001).
Department of Vegetable Science, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture
& Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (U. P.), India
The present investigation on inheritance of days to flowering and resistance
to rust in peas was conducted at Horticultural Research Centre, Patharchatta,
Pantnagar during rabi season of 1995-96. The F2 and F3 generations of
Arkel x JPBB-3 and Bonneville x JPBB-4 were utilized for determining
the inheritance of days to flowering and resistance to rust, respectively.
Arkel was an early and rust susceptible variety, Bonneville, late and
rust susceptible variety and JPBB-3 and JPBB-4, late and rust resistant
cultivars. Days to flowering was governed by a single gene, late non-being
dominant over earliness. Inheritance data on reaction to rust were inconsistent
over the generation and also in term of nature of dominance. The number
of genes varied from 1 to 2 over the crosses. This as per need was confirmed
by additional experiments.
DHARMENDRA SINGH AND V. K. MISHRA [Heterosis and inbreeding depression
in intraspecific hybrids of yellow sarson [Brassica campestris (L.)
var. yellow sarson Prain]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 419-422 (2001).
Department of Agricultural Botany, Janata Mahavidyalaya, Ajitmal, Auraiya-206
121 (U. P.), India
Heterosis (over economic parent) and inbreeding depression were estimated
among 70 hybrids generated from 20 parents in yellow sarson for 11 traits
viz., days to flower, days to maturity, plant height, primary branches/plant,
secondary branches/plant, siliqua length, seeds/siliqua, siliquae/plant,
1000-seed weight, oil content and seed yield/plant. Maximum economic
heterosis was observed from siliquae/plant followed by seeds/siliqua
and seed yield/plant. The crosses viz., AJL 20 x IB 1997 and AJL 18
x IB 1997 showed high heterosis over economic parent for siliquae/plant
and seed yield/plant. In general, hybrids showing high heterosis also
showed high inbreeding depression for most of the characters suggesting
importance of non-additive gene action.
AJAY SHARMA, PANKAJ AUDICHYA, ARUNABH JOSHI, R. GANESH AND P. N. MATHUR
[Biochemical basis of induced resistance during callus culture of
Brassica juncea and its reaction with Albugo candida]. Res. on Crops
2 (3) : 423-425 (2001). Department of Plant Pathology & Biochemistry,
Agricultural University, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India
Seed derived explants of Brassica juncea resistant variety RC-781 and
susceptible variety pusa Bold were cultured in vitro raised on M. S.
medium supplemented with I. A. A., 10 mg l-1 and kinetin, 2 mg-1 enriched
with biotin and L-ascorbic acid, based on the method developed by Sharma
and Mathur (1994). Disease was established by infecting two-month old
proliferating single cell lines of the two varieties with spores of
Albugo candida, white rust. Results on activities of soluble and ionically
bound peroxidase and hydroxyproline content of cell wall revealed that
infection caused increase in peroxidase activities, highest being of
the ionically bound peroxidase. The hydroxyproline content in the resistant
variety callus line was found higher, in the callus line analysed.
JIJI JOSEPH AND A. V. SANTHOSHKUMAR [Bi-parental mating studies in
green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 426-430
(2001). Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kerala Agricultural University, Pattambi
Five outstanding crosses were selected from 44 F1 hybrids to proceed
to F2 generation and bi-parental mating was effected between these crosses
according to North Carolina Design-1. Observations on biometrical traits
like plant height, branch number, pod number, seeds per pod, test weight
and seed yield were recorded to estimate mean and variance of full sib
progeny families. Bi-parental mating has resulted in increase in mean
value and variance of many full sib progeny families compared to base
population. Variance observed for seeds per pod and test weight were
less. Based on the yield performance, 19 full sib progenies were selected.
Each of these had one or more characters at the higher side than base
population. These could be utilized effectively to produce segregating
material using different breeding techniques to evolve high yielding
green gram genotypes.
V. R. K. REDDY [Yield performance of rust resistance near-isogenic
wheat lines]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 431-434 (2001). Cytogenetics
laboratory, Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641
046 (T. N.), India
Near-isogenic wheat lines were developed in four Indian wheat hexaploid
wheat by incorporating several rust resistance genes in a backcross
breeding programme. Yield performance of the constituted near-isogenic
lines was tested under rust-free condition with the chemical 'Tilt'.
The constituted near-isogenic lines gave significantly higher grain
yield than the untreated control plants. The yield of the recurrent
parents had increased and the per cent increase over the untreated parents
ranged between 31 to 48%. Similarly, an yield increase of 38 to 65%
over the untreated recurrent parents was observed in all the constituted
near-isogenic lines. When compared to chemical treated recurrent parents,
both increase and decrease in grain yield were noticed in the constituted
M. S. NARWAL, H. P. YADAV AND C. R. BAINIWAL [Top cross hybrids–An
alternative to landraces of pearl millet]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) :
435-437 (2001). Department of Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural
University, Hisar-125 004, India
The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the yield
potential of land races/populations of pearl millet could be improved
without seriously affecting their yield stability and adaptability by
using them as pollinators in top cross hybrids. The experimental material
was comprised of 16 single cross hybrids, six top cross hybrids and
six populations. The experiment was conducted for three consecutive
years viz., 1993, 1994 and 1995. The results revealed that the top crosses
gave 96% yield as compared to single coss hybrids, whereas the populations
were only 87%. Besides higher productivity in top crosses, the flowering
time was also advanced by 10 days. The comparison of pollinators and
their top crosses in this study has shown that top crosses improved
yield potential while retaining the genetic heterogeneity. The top crosses
also maintained yield stability and retained the adaptability of pollinators
to low yielding environments. Thus, rapid improvement in the yield of
pearl millet land races/populations may, therefore, be achieved by top
crossing them on selected male sterile lines.
SHARANAPPA JANGANDI, KULAPATI HIPPARAGI, CHOWDEGOWDA, M. H. M. JAYADEV
AND N. KRISHNA MURTHY [Studies on seepage losses as influenced by
different lining materials]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 438-440 (2001).
Agricultural Research Station, Kathalagere-577 219 (Karnataka), India
A field experiment was conducted during 1998 and 1999 at Agricultural
Research Station, Kathalagere to know the effectiveness of different
lining materials to reduce the seepage losses in field channels. The
studies indicated that the minimum (0.40 LPS) and maximum (4.06 LPS)
water losses were recorded in rectangular lining (brick+cement+mortar)
and earthen lining channels, respectively.
P. K. BISEN AND R. K. SINGH [Performance of new wheat genotypes under
varying levels of nitrogen application as affected by weather conditions].
Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 441-442 (2001). Department of Agronomy, Banaras
Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India
A field study was conducted at Agriculture Research Farm of Banaras
Hindu University during rabi season of 1995-96 to find out the optimum
dose of nitrogen for new wheat genotypes under late sown condition.
The treatment comprised three levels of nitrogen (80, 120 and 160 kg
ha-1) and three varieties (K 9305, HP 1731 and K 8804). The results
indicated that the yield attributing characters viz., grains earhead-1,
earhead sq. m-1 and 1000-grain weight were recorded to be at maximum
when nitrogen was applied at 160 kg ha-1 followed by 120 and 80 kg N
ha-1, respectively. Among varieties, HP 1731 gave maximum values followed
by K 9305 and K 8804. A slight aberration in weather condition adversely
affected growth and yield of the crop.
S. C. SAHOO, P. C. SATAPATHY AND A. K. KAR [On-farm assessment of
hybrid variety and recommended dose of fertilizer on the yield of maize
(Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 443-444 (2001). O. U. A. &
T. Regional Research and Technology Transfer Substation, Jashipur, Mayurbhanj-757
091 (Orissa), India
The effect of recommended dose of fertilizer on composite Navjot and
hybrid deccan 105 maize was studied under farmers' field condition in
Mayurbhanj district of Orissa. Application of 80 kg N, 40 kg P2O5, 40
kg K2O/ha to deccan 105 yielded 37.8 q/ha of grain which was 212% higher
than Navjot fertilized with 20 kg N and 10 kg P2O5/ha as followed by
the local farmers.
41. A. N. SRILATHA, S. C. MASTHAN AND SHAIK MOHAMMAD [Evaluation
of biological and economic efficiency in castor-legume intercropping
systems]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 445-448 (2001). Department of Agronomy,
Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar-500 030 (A.
A field investigation of intercropping of castor with legumes indicated
that its bean yield was not significantly reduced by two rows of groundnut,
greengram, blackgram or soybean interspersed between 90 cm rows of castor.
The yield from intercrops was additional. Maximum LER of 1.70 and ATER
of 1.53 were recorded by intercropping castor with groundnut. The RNR
indices indicated that the net profit was significantly more from intercropping
systems by growing two rows of groundnut, greengram, blackgram or soybean
in equidistant rows or three rows of former three crops in paired row
planting pattern of castor than sole crop. The best economically viable
options were to intercrop two rows of groundnut or blackgram in equidistant
rows of castor for maximum profit.
42. R. V. KULKARNI AND D. J. JIOTODE [Studies on intercropping
in cotton]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 449-451 (2001). Department of
Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India
Cotton variety AKH 84635 was tested for its response to cropping patterns
and intercropping systems during kharif 1994-95 on the farm of Department
of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.).
Sole solid cotton recorded highest yield of seed cotton (3.87 q ha-1).
The main object of the experiment was to find out suitable intercropping
system in cotton. Cotton intercropped with blackgram recorded highest
seed cotton yield in all three cropping patterns, followed by greengram
and soybean. Solid cotton planting (60 x 30 cm)+blackgram recorded higher
seed cotton yield (3.64 q ha-1) and higher results in all other yield
SUNIL HOLKAR1 AND K. C. MANDLOI [Performance of mutagenic, crossed
and single plant selections in coloured cotton]. Res. on Crops 2
(3) : 452-453 (2001). JNKVV All India Cotton Improvement Project, B.
M. College of Agriculture, Khandwa-450 001 (M. P.), India
Experimental material comprising 15 irradiated isogenic lines, 7 F1s
and 10 single plant selections (SPS) were evaluated for their performance.
Material irradiated by 50 KR and SPS showed almost similar population
viability performance. Higher mortality was observed in 75 kR irradiated
material. Abnormalities observed in irradiated material by 50 kR was
more in the form of reduction in plant height, leaves size, deformation
in leaves, square initiation but no flowering, etc. Irradiation by 50
kR may be the alternative of SPS. Successful hybridization in a systematic
manner may be helpful to realize the cummulative gene effects in colour
DHARMENDRA SINGH AND V. K. MISHRA [Variability studies in hybrids
and segregating populations of yellow sarson [Brassica campestris (L.)
var. yellow sarson Prain]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 454-456 (2001).
Department of Agricultural Botany, Janata Mahavidyalaya, Ajitmal, Auraiya-206
121 (U. P.), India
Variability parameters such as phenotypic and genotypic coefficients
of variation, heritability and genetic advance expressed as percentage
of mean were studied in the F1s and F2s of a partial diallel set. Higher
estimates of GCV coupled with high heritability and expected genetic
advance were observed for primary branches/plant, siliquae/plant and
seed yield/plant in both the generations. Selection criteria comprising
these characters have been suggested for improvement in seed yield/plant
through phenotypic selection.
S. M. DUSANE, U. S. SURVE AND R. G. RODGE [Extent of useful heterosis
for yield and yield attributes in sesamum (Sesamum indicum)]. Res.
on Crops 2 (3) : 457-459 (2001). Oilseeds Research Station, M. P. K.
V., Jalgaon-425 001 (M. S.), India
study was made to assess the nature and extent of standard heterosis
in 39 F1's based on female parent Tapi. Most of the hybrids exhibited
heterosis for all the traits studied. The crosses, Tapi x Yuzhi-7, Tapi
x TRS-12 and Tapi x Guj. Til No. 1 revealed heterotic vigour for the
characters under study in desirable direction. Such hybrids can be useful
for a large scale cultivation in future if they will give stable yields
over years and seasons.
46. A. KALAMANI AND M. SAKILLA [In vitro studies in finger millet
(Eleusine coracana L.) Gaertn]. Res. on Crops 2 (3) : 460-462 (2001).
Department of crop Improvement, Agricultural College and Research Institute,
Tiruchy-9 (Tamil Nadu), India
study was conducted to assess the embryogenic potential of finger millet.
The study material included three varieties, namely, CO 10, PR 177 and
HR 541. MS media was exclusively used for this study. The media used
for callus induction was MS+2, 4-D (0.5 mg l-1,1.0 mg l-1)+kinetin (0.5
mg l-1). Half MS media+2, 4-D (0.5 mg l-1)+kinetin (1 mg l-1+coconut
water (5%) and sucrose (2%) was used for callus proliferation and MS+kinetin
(1 mg l-1)+IAA (0.5 mg l-1) for induction of embryogenesis. Root and
shoot induction was done by transferring the embryoids to MS+NAA (0.1
mg l-1, 0.2 mg l-1)+kinetin (1 mg l-1) and MS+NAA (0.1 mg l-1, 0.2 mg
l-1)+BAP (0.2 mg l-1) media, respectively. PR 177 recorded higher frequency
of root and shoot morphogenesis followed by CO 10 and HR 541.
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