Research on Crops
Volume 11, Number3 (December ,2010)

 

1. P. RAJARATHINAM, G. JAMES MARTIN, R. JEYASRINIVAS AND T. BALAJI [Effect of integrated nitrogen management on yield, nutrient uptake and nirogen use efficiency of wet seeded rice-based cropping system]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 589-593 (2010). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during kharif, rabi and summer seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of integrated nitrogen management on yield, nutrient uptake and nitrogen use efficiency of wet seeded rice-based cropping system. The field experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Organic N sources viz., dual cropping of Azolla, Sesbania rostrata individually and in combination were compared in main plot treatments. Inorganic N levels viz., 0, 50, 75 and 100% recommended N were compared in the sub-plots. Greengram was raised as summer residual crop. The experimental results revealed that the combination of S. rostrata intercropping and Azolla microphylla as dual cropping in rice both for kharif and rabi seasons followed by summer residual greengram recorded the higher yield and nutrient uptake and lower values of N use efficiency. Increased levels of fertilizer N recorded the higher yield and nutrient uptake and lower N use efficiency values.

 

2. P. RAJARATHINAM, G. JAMES MARTIN, R. JEYASRINIVAS AND T. BALAJI [Effect of integrated nitrogen management on productivity, soil fertility and profitability of wet seeded rice-rice-greengram cropping system]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 594-597 (2010). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during kharif, rabi and summer seasons of 2003-04 (first cropping cycle) and 2004-05 (second cropping cycle) at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of integrated nitrogen management on productivity, soil fertility and profitability of wet seeded rice-rice-cropping system. The field experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Organic N sources viz., dual cropping of Azolla, Sesbania rostrata individually and in combination were compared in main plot treatments. Inorganic N levels viz., 0, 50, 75 and 100% recommended N were compared in the sub-plots. Greengram was raised as summer residual crop. The experimental results revealed that the combination of S. rostrata intercropping and Azolla microphylla as dual cropping in rice alongwith 50% inorganic nitrogen application both for kharif and rabi seasons followed by summer residual greengram increased the productivity, soil fertility and profitability of wet seeded rice-rice-greengram cropping system.

 

3. T. C. YOGESH, A. P. VISWANATH, V. R. RAMAKRISHNA PARAMA AND D. H. ROOPASHREE [Influence of zinc, iron and microbial inoculants on root growth, nutrient uptake and yield of aerobic rice]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 598-602 (2010). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India.

Abstract

An experiment was conducted in the Zonal Agriculture Research Station, Vishweshvariah Canal Farm, Mandya during kharif 2008 to study on influence of zinc, iron and microbial inoculants on root growth, nutrient uptake and yield of aerobic rice. The results revealed that among the different treatments RDF+FYM @ 10 t/ha+ZnSO4 @ 20 kg/ha+VAM+ Azospirillum+PSB recorded significantly higher root length (25.57 cm), root weight (7.33 g), root volume (68.17 cc), higher nutrient uptake, higher soil residual status and higher grain yield (43.63 q/ha).

 

4. Pedram Broumand*, Abdolmajid Rezaei, Ali Soleymani, Mohammad Hesam Shahrajabian and Atefe Noory [Influence of forage clipping and top dressing of nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield of cereal crops in dual purpose cultivation system]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 603-613 (2010). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : pedram.broumand@khuisf.ac.ir).

Abstract

In climatic conditions of Isfahan, forage production for livestcok feeding is difficult and expensive due to low and erratic rainfall during the year. As an alternative, cultivation of wheat, barley, rye and triticale can be used as dual purpose system autumn sown cereals. So, in order to evaluate the effects of forage clipping and utilization of nitrogen as a top dress fertilizer, on grain yields of some cereals in dual purpose cultivation, an experiment was conducted at cultural experiment and research center, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasghan Branch, Isfahan in 2009-10. The experimental design was a factorial-split layout in randomized complete block design with three replications. The combination of two nitrogen fertilizer as a top dress fertilizer (0 and 250 kg/ha in two stages) forms urea source and forage clipping was considered as main factor, and different cereals (wheat, barley, rye and triticale) were sub-factor. Forage clipping had significant effect on the number of spikes per m2, the number of grains in spike, grain yield, 1000-grain weight, stem height, percentage of lodging, straw yield, chlorophyll content and solar radiation absorption. Nitrogen topdressing also had significant effects on all parameters, expect of number of tillers at anthesis stage, straw yield and harvest index. All parameters were significantly influenced by cultivation of cereals. The highest straw yield, grain yield and 1000-grain yield were obtained by triticale. We concluded that dual purpose cultivation system had negative influence on grain yield. However, application of nitrogen as a topdress fertilizer could minimize these adverse effects. Cultivation of barley and triticale showed considerable advantages than other crops.

 

5. Ahmad Mohammadi Ghehsareh* and Tahereh Kamran [Effects of different amounts of zinc and iron application on quantitative and qualitative yield of wheat (Triticum durum L.) in northern Hormozgan province in Iran]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 614-619 (2010). Department of Soil Science Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran
*(e-mail : mghehsareh@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Hormozgan province has generally calcareous soils and so it has deficits of microelements. Therefore, method and suitable rate of using these elements need to be designed in agriculture. For this object, the effects of different amounts of zinc and iron and their interaction effects on quantitative and qualitative yield of wheat (Triticum durum L.) in this area were studied. An experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were in four levels of Fe (0, 5, 10 and 15 kg/ha of Fe from 138 secostron) and in four levels of Zn include 0, 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha of Zn element from zinc sulfate. The results showed that the effect of different levels of Fe and Zn on straw and grain yield, cluster numbers in area unit, weight of 1000 grains, number of grains in spike, amount of protein and amount of Fe and Zn in grain had significant difference at the 1% level. So, the amount of Fe application caused decreasing of Zn in grains and diversely the amount of Zn application caused decreasing of Fe in grain but these effects were not significant. Interactions of Fe and Zn were positive and their effect on studied parameters had significant difference at the 1% level. Highest grain yield was related to Zn75Fe10 treatment that was 5728 kg/ha.

 

6. Mohammad Reza Dadnia*, A. Asgharzadeh and S. Lirabi Poor [Effect of organomineral fertilizer (Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Azotobacter) on nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 620-623 (2010). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

The topic of how to decrease environmentally adverse effects of agriculture without losing too much crop yield is an important issue.In this respect, nitrogen uptake was studied from a soil (land fallowing is not practised) treated with three types of organomineral bacterial root development[Pseudomonas utida, Azospirillum lipoferum and Azotobacter chrococcum, respectively]. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. chamran) yield parameters were obtained and the alveographic assays showed that the P. utida had a great potential of being used, at least on the wheat variety tested and under the pedoclimatic conditions prevailing in the study area. In this respect, application of P. utida gave a significant increase in grain yield, number of grains per spike, tillers/m2 and 1000-seed weight of 22.94%, and A. lipoferum, A. chrococcum increased these parameteres about 19.92 and 17.41% at 75 and 100% N application, respectively.

 

7. Mohammad Reza Dadnia*, SH. Lack and F. Rezapoor [Winter wheat response to selenium and formaldehyde polymers in dry regions]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 624-627 (2010). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Formaldehyde polymers have potential to improve yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Formaldehyde polymer (FP) was compared with selenium during a experiment in Ahwaz Research Field.Treatments were selenium (19 g/ha) and FP rate (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg/ha). Both sources were band applied at flowering stage such as FP with split application, whereas selenium with leaves foliar, which is the current standard practice. Based on research, FP producers’ applied after the end of tillering (wheat). For both parameteres, grain yield was statistically similar. Field analysis suggested that FP × selenium was significant for water deficit conditions. Since the FP significantly improved yield, selenium only be economical if priced similar to FP. However, the value of chemical markers (MDA) (8-OH-DG) and (Di-TY) was generally positive for water deficit and negative for selenium and FP.

 

8. Mohammad Reza Dadnia, A. Asgharzadeh and R. Shaabani [Effect of liquid nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen levels on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 628-631 (2010). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Because of improved equipment technology, many producers are planting winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with management of fertilizer N remains critical. This field study was conducted from 2009 in Ahwaz Research Field on a silt loam soil. The objectives were to determine effects and interactions of development stages, preplant placement method of liquid N fertilizer[Nitrauxin : Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Azotobacter] at [Seed Foliar (SF), Leaves Foliar at the end of tillering (LFT) and Irrigation Water application at the end of tillering (IWT)] and fertilizer N rate (90 and 120 kg N/ha) on winter wheat yield, yield components and nutrient uptake. Wheat yields averaged 4.66, 5.44, 4.18 and 3.39 t/ha following SF, LFT, IWT and control treatments at 100% N applied, respectively. Grain yields were also influenced by placement of N fertilizer. Plant and grain N responses indicated that grain yield differences were primarily related to greater immobilization of both liquid fertilizer and inorganic N following SF than IWT applied. Fertilizing with greater N rates applied as a SF may be necessary to maximize wheat yield potential in this region.

 

9. Mohammad Reza Dadnia*, A. Asgharzadeh and F. Talavari [Effect of late application of foliar nitrogen on yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 632-635 (2010). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Increasing grain protein in new higher-yielding cereal grains has recently received added attention due to protein premiums paid to farmers. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) studies were conducted during 2009 to evaluate the effects of late-season foliar N applications on grain yield. Foliar applications of N were made at spiking stage (Leaves foliar and N application with irrigation water), seed foliar and control treatments, using urea at rates of 90 and 120 kg N/ha. A significant difference in increase in grain yield was observed for leaves foliar applications in this study. In the present experiment, significant differences were observed for nitrogen levels. Consistent increases from foliar N applications were observed for grain yield. Leaves foliar applied (4 litre liquid N/ha) increased grain over that N applied with irrigation water (4 litre liquid N/ha) by 5.36 and 4.12 t/ha, respectively. Seed foliar applied (2 litre for 100 kg seed) increased grain yield than control treatments by 4.81 and 3.54 t/ha, respectively. Late-season foliar N applications before or immediately following flowering may significantly enhance grain yield content and, thus, per cent protein in winter wheat.

 

10. A. Tayebi, Mohammad Reza Dadnia* and A. NaderI [Wheat yield as affected by growing degree days (GDD) and nitrogen under climatical conditions of Ahwaz, Iran]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 636-639 (2010). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Temperature and nitrogen affect crop rate. Growing degree days (GDD) are used to account for the effect of temperature and nitrogen, but little information is available about winter wheat yield improvement as a function of GDD. This study was conducted for two wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L. vs. Chamran and S-7811) and the subsequent release of N under field conditions using GDD. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. Wheat seeds were planted during the fall either in monoculture. Samples were taken five times during the growing season.GDD and nitrogen were effective as time scales. Winter wheat differed in initial biomass. At the end of the growing season, S-7811 had almost complete initial biomass than Chamran. It indicated a potential source of N, while yield improvment was more useful in soil conservation.The practical significance of these findings was that producers could theoretically adjust preplant or in-season topdress N fertilizer rates by considering the previous year yield level and the degree of response to N.

 

11. Mohammad Reza Dadnia*, SH. Lack and B. Kayshams [Osmotic adjustment in wheat in relation to foliar application of selenium timing under water deficit stress]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 640-643 (2010). Department of Agronomy

Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Field experiment was conducted at the Ahwaz Research Center for improvement of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield to ascertain the role of selenium foliar application in two times (Floral initiation and the end of flowering) and cellular membrane stability (CMS) in sustaining grain yield and its stability under water deficit conditions. Under simulated water deficit conditions of the field, the selenium foliar timing differed considerably regarding CMS,ranging from 899.877 mmohs/cm at floral initiation and from 1156.298 mmohs/cm at the end of flowering. When the mean values of chemical markers[Malon di aldehyde (MDA) and Tirosine (TY)] were low, regressed against cellular membrane destruction, the correlation coefficient value increased with the increase in moisture stress, protect cellular with grain yield at the highest line source water deficit level. CMS, markers rate and grain yield were measured in the simulated water deficit condition in the field. Besides, high CMS maintained yield stability through maintenance of turgor under water deficit during reproductive period of crop growth. The results indicated that low rate of markers such as MDA and TY caused yield improvment with CMS regulated.

 

12. Mohammad Reza Dadnia, A. Asgharzadeh and S. Hossein Zadeh [Evaluation of Azospirillum species interactions with N fertilizer in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 644-647 (2010). Department of Agronomy

Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields are reduced by nutrient stress in many countries worldwide. The main objective of this study was to determine whether modifications to currently recommended crop management practices could improve wheat yield for nutrients uptake. Field trials were conducted during 2009 in Ahwaz Agricultural Research Field. Crop establishment and other plant characteristics were measured to help understand the basis of improved performance and to identify potential diagnostic traits. Management factors included (i) A. brasilense × A. lipoferum, A. brasilense × A. irakiens and A. lipoferum × A. irakiens and (ii) inorganic fertilizer (N) at 75 and 100% levels. Control treatments represented recommended practices and gave yields of 3.9 t/ha, averaged across all environments. Considering main effects, A. brasilense × A. lipoferum gave the highest yield response (26.98%) and approximately equivalent levels of N, suggesting that inorganic fertilizer provided growth factors in addition to nutrient content. A. brasilense × A. irakiens and A. lipoferum × A. irakiens increased yield about 23.01 and 20.74% at 75 and 100% N applied than control treatments, repectively. Improved performance in response to inputs was generally associated with better stand establishment and with significant increases in plant height, grain per unit area and aboveground biomass. The possibilities of realizing the benefits of applied inorganic matter and bacterial treatments through briefly discussed.

 

13. Mohammad Reza Dadnia, A. Asgharzadeh and M. Mohammad Nejad [Response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to fertilizer levels and root growth mobilizer bacterial species]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 648-651 (2010). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Response to fertilizer is a function of several factors including weather, soil condition, previous year yield level and the actual amount of fertilizer and bacterial species applied.The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate interaction among Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and fertilizer can explain variability in long-term grain yield and fertilizer response to assess if demand for N fertilizer of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) improves the yield. Data were collected from experiment located at Ahwaz Researh Field. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. Azotobacter chrococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum and Pseudomonas utida treatments that consisted of annual application of N (75 and 100%) fertilizer were included although selected treatments.The practical significant differences among bacterial treatments showed that yield components affected by these treatments such as A. lipoferum × P. utida, P. utida × A. chrococcum and A. lipoferum × A. chrococcum increased yield 27.5, 21.7 and 17.8% at N applied, repectively. It could theoretically adjust preplant or in-season topdress N fertilizer rates by considering the previous year yield level and the degree of response to N.

 

14. VAHEDI ALI* AND ZAHRA ESPIDKAR [Corn (Zea mays L.) yield and dry matter production under different nitrogen rates and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) density condition]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 652-658 (2010). Department of Agronomy Islamic Azad University, Astara Branch, Boulvar Emam, Astara, P. B.-1141, Guilan, Iran *(e-mail : dr.alivahedi@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Faculty Research Field of the Islamic Azad University, Astara Branch (north-western Iran) during 2007 and 2008. The main goal was to examine the effects of redroot pigweed density (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) on redroot pigweed dry matter (Dmw), leaf area index (LAIw) at 50%, corn (Zea mays L.) tassel time and corn grain yield (GYc) and dry matter (Dmc). The experiments were established as split plots arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot was nitrogen (N) rate at four rates 0, 100, 160 and 220 kg/ha. The sub-plot was redroot pigweed densities, which were considered at four levels 0, 5, 10 and 20 weeds/m2 in an extended form to the corn farm. The results indicated that nitrogen application upto 160 kg of N/ha with 5 and 10 weeds/m2 did not have any significant effect on Dmw and LAIw of redroot pigweed. However, both characteristics increased with the weed density gain. When 220 kg of N was applied to one hectare, these two characteristics of the weed were increased, and their amounts in more densities were greater as well. The highest levels of redroot pigweed Dmw and LAIw in 20 weeds/m2 and application of 220 kg of N/ha were calculated to be 12.4 t/ha and 1.82, respectively. Corn GYc was 13 t/ha under 160 kg of N/ha in sole corn condition. The highest corn Dmc was observed at 15.9 t/ha under the condition where 220 kg of N was applied per hectare for sole corn. Eventually, it was found that the presence of five weeds/m2 upto 160 kg of N/ha did not have any significant effect on corn characteristics; however, they were decreased by increasing weed density. The highest decrease was observed when the researcher applied the highest amount of nitrogen and the highest weed density.

 

15. Mahdi Khoshkharam*, Abdolmajid Rezaei, Ali Soleymani and Mohammad Hesam Shahrajabian[Effects of tillage and residue management on yield components and yield of maize in second cropping after barley]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 659-666 (2010). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran

*(e-mail : m.khoshkharam@khuisf.ac.ir).

Abstract

The rapidly increasing population and request for feed in the world had led to increase soil cultivation, so appropriate management of residues and soil tillage is necessary for enhancing site productivity in corn plantation in rotation with barley in Isfahan. In order to determine the effects of tillage and residue management on yield, protein and nitrate of maize (cv. SC 704) in second cropping after barley in climatic condition of Isfahan, an experiment was conducted in 2009. Completely randomized block design with three replications was used. The main plots were different kinds of tillage system, namely, disk harrow, tooth harrow and moldboard, and sub-plots consisted of 100% burning of barely residues, 50% burning of barley residues, 100% residue retention and 50% residue retention. Tillage just had significant effect on germination percentage, but residue management had significant influence on germination percentage, plant height, LAI, nitrate of maize and total protein of plant. All traits had not been significantly influenced by interaction between tillage and residue management. The highest germination percentage, plant height, stem diameter, LAI, fresh forage yield and appropriate total protein content of corn were related to tooth harrow system, and also 50% residue retention had obtained the maximum germination percentage, plant height, LAI, fresh forage yield and total protein of plant. Using tooth harrow followed by residue retention in maize cropping after barley was recommended to farmers in climatic condition of Isfahan.

 

16. M. Shams*, R. Choukan, E. Majidi and F. Darvish[Effects of leaf rolling on grain yield reduction of maize inbred lines under drought stress conditions]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 667-672 (2010). Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : mshams@khuisf.ac).

Abstract

Fifteen maize inbred lines were sown in a randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan. Grain yield, relative yield reduction and leaf rolling were examined under different irrigation conditions after 70, 90 and 110 mm evaporation from a Class A pan. The results showed that significant differences existed among the inbred lines. They were separated into three groups on the basis of degree of leaf rolling and yield reduction under cool and warm weather. Group I : they didn’t show sensitivity to leaf rolling under drought stress conditions and their mean relative yield reduction was more than total mean relative yield reduction. Group II : they showed more sensitivity to leaf rolling with increasing stress level and in cool weather weren’t completely unrolled. Their mean relative yield reduction was more than total mean relative yield reduction. Group III : these almost showed sensitivity to leaf rolling in warm weather under drought stress conditions and were unrolled in cool weather under drought stress conditions. This study indicates that selection of third group under non-stress conditions for using drought stress conditions is more effective.

 

17. S. K. BURGHATE [Studies on boll setting and retention influenced by environmental factors in GMS lines of desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 673-676 (2010). Department of Agricultural Botany Shri Shivaji College of Horticulture, Amravati (M. S.), India.

Abstract

A study was undertaken to increase the efficiency of hybrid cotton seed production and to reduce its production cost by using genetic male sterile lines viz., GAK-423, GAK-8615 and DGMS-1 of G. arboreum. Boll setting, boll retention and seeds per crossed boll were significantly influenced by period and time of pollination. The stigma receptivity judged on the basis of boll setting per cent was maximum from 11.00 a. m. to 1.00 p. m. in September and from 12.00 noon to 2.00 p. m. in October and November. The present study suggested that pollination could be extended upto 2.00 p. m. in hybrid seed production programme in desi cotton.

 

18. S. K. BURGHATE[Effect of climatic conditions of different months on flowering and fruiting behaviour of desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 677-679 (2010). Department of Agricultural Botany Shri Shivaji College of Horticulture, Amravati (M. S.), India.

Abstract

Investigation carried out at Cotton Research Unit, Dr. P. D. K. V., Akola indicated that all three GMS lines viz., GAK-423, GAK-8615 and DGMS-1 exhibited earliness for flowering and fruiting behavior in September than October followed by November and it might be due to varying climatic conditions during these three months. This information may be useful for properly synchronizing males and females for getting high seed yield and quality particularly in desi cotton hybrid seed production programme.

 

19. A. P. BIRADAR, D. P. BIRADAR, C. B. KABADAGI AND J. A. HOSAMATH [Effect of Bt cotton residues on development of earthworms]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 680-682 (2010). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur-586 101 (Karnataka), India.

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur to know the effect of Bt cotton residues on development of earthworms. Among the Bt cotton residues, chopped residues have recorded the significantly higher number of juveniles/pit (21.6) compared to the Bt cotton unchopped residues (9.7). Both were found on par with the non-Bt cotton residues chopped (20.3) and unchopped (7.3) residues, respectively. With respect to manures, significant differences were observed. Pig manure (1:10) recorded significantly higher number of juveniles/pit (19.6) and was recorded with the treatment over the poultry manure (1:10) 15 juveniles/pit. Among the cotton residues, the Bt cotton crop residues (chopped) recorded the significantly lower per cent vermifeed remained undegraded/per cent recovery (925.1/76.36) compared to the unchopped Bt cotton crop residues and non-Bt cotton crop residues chopped (34.45/62.0) and non-Bt cotton crop residues unchopped residues (61.11/28.66). Among the treatments, higher per cent vermifeed remained undegraded/per cent recovery was recorded with a treatment unchopped non-Bt cotton crop residues. In conclusion, Bt cotton residues are safe to earthworms and used for large scale.

 

20. Mohammad Reza Dadnia*, SH. Lack and S. Vaziri [Response of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) roots to absorbent polymer levels]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 683-686 (2010). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

Abstract

Response to absorbent polymers is a function of several factors including weather, soil condition and the actual amount applied. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate that polymers could explain variability in long term grain yield to assess if demand for fertilizers and water of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) improves the root development. The experimental design was a split split plot randomized complete block with four replications. Three polymer treatments (0, 75 and 150 kg/ha) that consisted of annual application and two rapeseed cultivars (308 and 401) were included although selected treatments were used to address the objectives. 308 cultivar was a better of both grain yield and yield components than other cultivar and 150 kg/ha polymer application 26% yield increase. For absorbent polymers, applied 150 kg/ha, 308 had a high yield and antioxidant enzymes activity in experiments. The practical significance of these findings is that producers could theoretically adjust absorbent polymer rates by considering the soil moisture level and the degree of response to water deficit. These results suggest that GPX (Glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (Superoxide dismutase) may play a role in the water-deficit in response to absorbent polymers application.

 

21. Saeed Saeedipour [Allelopathic effect of field mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) on germination and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 687-692 (2010). Department of Agronomy Islamic Azad University, Shooshtar Branch, Iran

*(e-mail : saeeds79@gmail.com).

Abstract

This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various Sinapis arvensis L. (field mustard) plant parts on Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) germination and seedling growth. Aqueous extracts of S. arvensis leaf and stem plant part were made to determine their effects on germination and dry weights of hypocotyl and radicle length of 7-day old T. aestivum seedlings over a range of aqueous extraction at 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5%. Increasing the aqueous extract concentrations of separated S. arvensis, plant parts significantly inhibited T. aestivum germination, seedling length and weight. Radicle length was more sensitive to extract source than seed germination or hypocotyls length. Based on 7-day old T. aestivum plant radicle length growth, averaged across all extract concentrations, the degree of toxicity of different S. arvensis plant parts was leaf > stem.

 

22. P. M. VAGHASIA, K. V. JADAV, L. L. JIVANI AND V. H. KACHHADIYA [Impact of water stress at different growth phases of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on growth and yield]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 693-696 (2010). Main Oilseeds Research Station Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : pmvjnd@rediffmail.com).

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of water stress at different growth phases on yield of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in summer season on clay soil at Main Oilseeds Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh with six genotypes. Pooled analysis of data indicated that imposing an ephemeral water stress significantly reduced the pods per plant, shelling, 100-kernel weight, harvest index and oil content. While water stress at flowering and pod development stages by withholding irrigation did not affect the productivity of the groundnut crop significantly and saved about 33.33% of irrigation water by reducing the number of irrigations during summer season, but stress at flowering stage (25-47 days after sowing) and pod development stage (50-72 days after sowing) gave 18.45 and 30.63% reduction in pod yield than no water stress treatment, respectively. Different groundnut genotypes did not exert their significant effect. The highest water use (84.35 cm) and benefit : cost ratio (2.42) was obtained under no water stress. While maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was achieved under water stress imposed at flowering stage. Among the genotypes, GG 6 recorded higher water use efficiency (WUE) and benefit : cost ratio.

 

23. C. B. KABADAGI AND R. A. SETTY [Growth characters and yield of groundnut genotypes as influenced by levels of NPK and growth regulators]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 697-700 (2010). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur (Karnataka), India.

Abstract

The experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur in ruby/summer season of 1997-98 under irrigation. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design and replicated three times. The treatments consisted of two groundnut genotypes (R-9251 and K-134) as main plot treatments, three levels of NPK (F1 : 25 : 75 : 25, F2 : 31.25 : 93.25 : 31.25 and F3 : 37.5 : 112.5 : 37.5 NPK kg/ha) as sub-plot treatments and two growth regulators (Brassinollide @ 125 ml/ha and triacontanol @ 200 ml/ha) with water spray as check in sub-sub plot treatments. Among the groundnut genotypes, R-9251 has given the significantly higher yield of 1867 kg/ha compared to the K-134 (1506 kg/ha). In case of fertilizer levels, no significant difference was observed due to the increase in the NPK levels from 25 : 75 : 25 to 37.5 : 112.5 : 37.5 kg/ha. So far as the growth regulators were concerned, triacontanol gave the higher yield of 1803 kg/ha compared to the brassinollide (1742 kg/ha) and was found significantly superior over the water spray (1508 kg/ha). Similar trend was followed in all the growth attributing characters.

 

24. A. K. DOLUI, L. BALASARIA AND S. DAS [Sulphur fractions and carbon, nitrogen and sulphur relationships in two Inceptisols and an Alfisol of Orissa]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 701-706 (2010). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Institute of Agricultural Sciences Calcutta University, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700 019, India.

Abstract

Distribution of different forms of sulphur and carbon-nitrogen-sulphur relationships were studied in soil profiles collected from three well established soil series belonging two Inceptisols and an Alfisols of Orissa. The ranges of different forms of sulphur in Sambukia, Khanjalgu and Dandapadar series were : total-S : 3840 to 5340, 3563 to 3938 and 3480 to 5520 mg/kg, organic-S : 221 to 337, 205 to 249 and 200 to 376 mg/kg, calcium chloride extractable-S : 47 to 53, 60 to 76 and 63 to 94 mg/kg, hydrochloric acid extractable-S : 35 to 40, 26 to 52 and 31 to 65 mg/kg, sodium chloride extractable-S : 80 to 88, 77 to 117 and 80 to 117 mg/kg and ammonium acetate extractable-S : 41 to 45, 47 to 55 and 50 to 66 mg/kg, respectively. The respective mean of C : N, C : S, N : S and C : N : S ratios was 11.0, 1.4, 0.14 and 110 : 10 : 75 for Sambukia, 12.9, 1.9, 0.19 and 129 : 10 : 73 for Khanjalgu and 6.3, 0.6, 0.11 and 63 : 10 : 159 for Dandapadar series.

 

25. Balwan Singh, V. S. Arya, B. S. Duhan and V. Kumar [Effect of soil type, irrigation depth and time of irrigation on sulphur movement in soils]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 707-711 (2010). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.

Abstract

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the leaching of sulphur, as affected by different factors, in plexiglass columns filled with soil, compacted to a bulk density of 1.45 g/cm3, powdered K2SO4 was applied in 0-3 cm layer on weight basis and 5 cm of water was applied. Sampling was done after 24 h of water application and at six specified intervals to see the time effect. The movement of sulphur was found to be maximum in sandy soil and least in clay loam soil. Peaks of SO4-S were detected at 12-15 and 9-12 cm depths in sandy and clay loam soils, respectively. Increasing rate of water application increased the movement of sulphur in soils. SO4-S peaks were observed at 6-9, 12-15, 24-27 and 36-39 cm depths with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 cm of water application, respectively. SO4-S peak was found at 9-12 cm depth just after water infilterates into the soil and it moved to 21-24 cm depth after 12 days of water application. Increase in clay content in soil decreased the movement of sulphur, whereas a reverse trend was observed with increase in level of water application rate.

 

26. S. Nasr and P. Najafi [Effects of raw wastewater injection by SDI system on soil physical properties]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 712-715 (2010). Department of Soil and Water Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, P. O. 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : payam.najafi@gmail.com)

Abstract

Many cities and districts are struggling to supply water use from municipal, industrial, agricultural and recreational generated wastewater. To assess the effects of municipal wastewater of Khorasgan University on soil quality, three treatments in three replications were designed. The treatments included furrow irrigation (FW), surface drip irrigation (DI) and sub-surface drip irrigation at 30 cm depth (SDI). Some physical and chemical parameters were measured in the soil from 60 cm depth in experiment performed at landscape in 2007. The effluent application caused decrease in the value of field capacity, saturation moisture point and porosity but at DI and SDI systems physical properties had shown better condition as compared to FW. On the other hand, because of better water distribution, EC and SAR had shown fewer values in SDI system as compared to two other treatments. Therefore, SDI irrigation system has a better condition due to soil quality.

 

27. M. Rajasekhar, D. V. Raghava Rao and D. Srihari [Studies on certain vegetative morphological characters of sapota (Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg) germplasm]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 716-718 (2010). Horticultural Research Station Venkataramannagudem-534 101, West Godavari District (A. P.), India

Abstract

An attempt was made to characterize 25 sapota genotypes based on the vegetative characters at HRS, Venkataramannagudem during 2006-08. The growth habit of the tree was found to be spreading, erect, semi-erect in various genotypes, while the shape of the tree was noticed to be irregular, elliptical, semi-circular, spherical and broadly pyramidal. The branching patterns recorded were irregular, horizontal and verticillate, while the branch density was dense, medium dense and sparse. The leaf characters like length, width, leaf area, shape of leaf tip, leaf shape and leaf margin of all the genotypes were also studied.

 

28. M. Rajasekhar and Y. N. Reddy [Effect of post-harvest treatments of ethylene inhibitors and promoters on endogenous ethylene and polyamine levels and shelf life of tomato fruits during storage]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 719-721 (2010). Department of Horticulture College of Agriculture (ANGRAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A. P.), India

Abstract

Post-harvest treatments on tomato cv. Rashmi revealed that the treatment silver nitrate 0.6 mM produced lower ethylene (13.64 nl/g/h), while silver nitrate 0.3 mM had higher polyamine content (6.12 µM/g) as against 17.18 nl/g/h ethylene produced and 5.81 µM/g of polyamine content in control. They also maintained better quality of the fruits in terms of higher TSS, reducing sugars, titrable acidity and lower PLW. Shelf life has been extended with silver nitrate 0.6 mM treatment by 23 days followed by calcium nitrate 300 mM (22 days), while it was 15 days in control. The increase in shelf life by silver nitrate 0.6 mM was 34.78% over control.

 

29. P. R. PADHAR AND P. P. ZAVERI [Genetic studies in relation to selection criteria in chilli]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 722-727 (2010). Main Oilseeds Research Station Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India

Abstract

The present investigation was undertaken to study the variability parameters, correlation and path coefficient analysis for 12 metric traits in 50 genotypes of chilli. Significant genotypic differences were observed for all the traits studied indicating considerable amount of variation among genotypes for each character. The estimates of genotypic (GCV %) and phenotypic (PCV %) coefficient of variation were high for number of fruits per plant, fresh fruit yield per plant, dry fruit yield per plant, pulp : seed ratio, girth of fruit and length of fruit. Similarly, high amount of heritability and genetic advance was also observed for all the above mentioned characters indicating the scope for their improvement through selection. Fresh fruit yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with number of branches per plant, pulp : seed ratio, moisture content and number of fruits per plant. The path analysis suggested that the highest strong and positive direct effect on dry fruit yield was found to be exerted by fresh fruit yield per plant followed by number of fruits per plant and plant height. Number of fruits per plant and number of branches per plant had considerable indirect influence on dry fruit yield through fresh fruit yield per plant and moisture content. These characters may be given due emphasis while making selection for improvement in dry fruit yield of chilli.

 

30. Ali Khosravi Shakib, Abdolhossein Rezaei Nejad and Ahmad Khalighi [Changes in seed and oil yield of Calendula officinalis L. as affected by different levels of nitrogen and plant density]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 728-732 (2010). Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : alikhosravishakib@hotmail.com)

Abstract

In order to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen and plant density on seed and oil yield of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.), an experiment was conducted at research field of Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad in 2009. The experiment was carried out as a split-plot arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Nitrogen level was the main factor with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha) and plant density was the sub-factor with three levels (50, 33 and 25 plants/m2). Number of heads/plant, number of seeds/plant, 1000-seed weight, weight of seeds/plant, seed yield, oil content and oil yield were recorded. Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that nitrogen levels had no significant effect on different parameters (P>0.05). However, Duncan’s Multiple Range Test showed a significant difference among means in all parameters (P<0.05). Application of 100 kg/ha nitrogen showed the highest seed and oil yield with 118.919 and 18.152 g/m2, respectively. Moreover, ANOVA showed that plant density had a very significant effect on number of heads/plant, number of seeds/plant and weight of seeds/plant (P<0.01). According to the results, as plant density decreased, number of heads/plant, number of seeds/plant and weight of seeds/plant increased. ANOVA also showed significant effect of the interaction between nitrogen levels and plant densities on weight of seeds/plant, seed and oil yield (P<0.05 ). The highest seed and oil yield (124.472 and 19.564 g/m2, respectively) was found with application of 100 kg/ha nitrogen and 25 plants/m2 which were not significantly different from those with application of 150 kg/ha nitrogen and 33 plants/m2. Considering the importance of less application of chemical fertilizer in agriculture, 100 kg/ha nitrogen and 25 plants/m2 could be recommended for producing desirable seed and oil yield in calendula under Khorramabad (Iran) climatic conditions.

 

31. KUMARI BASAMMA, S. T. KAJJIDONI, P. M. SALIMATH AND MALAGOUDA PATIL [Hybrid vigour and association studies in interspecific F1 hybrids of desi cotton for productivity and quality traits]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 733-740 (2010). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

Seven parents in five cross combinations were studied for heterosis in F1 over mid-parent, better parent and commercial check variety of desi cotton and association studies in their F2 populations for number of bolls per plant, boll weight, halo length, ginning outturn and seed cotton yield per plant to identify promising inbred lines and suitable cross combinations. Seed cotton yield and number of bolls per plant expressed high magnitude of heterosis over mid-parent, better parent and commercial check variety in all cross combinations. High heterosis was observed in RDC 88 x MDL 2582 compared to other crosses for seed cotton yield and DD-8NLE x MDL 2582 for boll number over commercial check variety Jayadhar. High heterosis for boll weight was observed in cross combination RDC 88 x MDL 2582 over mid-parent and check compared to other cross combinations, high heterosis for halo length and ginning outturn was recorded by the same cross RDC 88 x MDL 2582 over mid-parent compared to other crosses and also then earlier reports. Considerable amount of heterosis manifested by various characters suggested possibility of more improvement in these characters, nevertheless higher magnitude of heterosis in number of bolls and simultaneous increase in yield further suggested that bolls per plant may be an important selection for increasing cotton yield. Association analysis among seed cotton yield and its component traits indicated significant positive association of boll number with seed cotton yield in all the populations, boll weight with the seed cotton yield in DD-8NLE x MDL 2582, RDC 88 x MDL 2601 and 9749 x MDL 2601. And was interestingly positive association of halo length with seed cotton yield in DD-8NLE x MDL 2582 and RDC 88 x MDL 2582 and with boll number and boll weight in 9749 x MDL 2601.

 

32. SUBASH CHANDER, SHIV K. SINGAL, DALIP KUMAR AND NARESH KUMAR [Efficacy of various grain protectants against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) infesting greengram, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 741-744 (2010). Department of Entomology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

Abstract

Efficacy of 11 grain protectants viz., neem seed kernel powder @ 20 g/kg seed, neem oil @ 10 ml/kg, mustard and groundnut oil each @ 7.5 ml/kg, turmeric powder @ 3.5 g/kg, mustard oil +turmeric powder @ 3.75 ml+1.75 g/kg, groundnut oil+turmeric powder @ 3.75 ml+1.75 g/kg, 7 cm covering with each of saw dust, sandy soil, dung cake ash and wheat husk was investigated on adult mortality (%) and weight loss (%) by Callosobruchus chinensis on treated and untreated greengram seeds (Control) at an interval of 1, 35, 70 and 105 days after storage. Greengram seed treated with all the grain protectants except saw dust resulted in significantly high adult mortality per cent of C. chinensis in comparison to control when observed at 1, 35, 70 and 105 days after storage. Maximum (100.00%) adult mortality was observed in treatment with neem oil, however, it was at par with those treated with 7 cm covering with dung cake ash and was most effective adult mortality treatment. Treatment with wheat husk, sandy soil and turmeric powder (3.33% in each treatment) was least effective which was followed by mustard oil+turmeric powder (16.67%), groundnut oil+turmeric powder (10.00%) and mustard oil (13.33%) and groundnut oil (16.67%) when observed after 105 days of storage. On the basis of per cent weight loss, all the grain protectant treatments proved significantly more effective in comparison to untreated control after 35, 70 and 105 days of storage. After 105 days of storage, per cent weight loss recorded was 0% when greengram seed was either treated with neem oil or covered with 7 cm covering of sandy soil and dung cake ash. Maximum per cent weight loss (2.16%) was recorded in greengram seed covered with wheat husk (7 cm covering) followed by neem seed kernel powder (1.8%).

 

33. SIBEL DERVIS, SONER SOYLU* AND HALIT YETISIR [Identification and incidence of seed-borne fungal disease agents on bottle gourd (Lageneria siceraria) seeds]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 745-748 (2010). Department of Plant Protection Agriculture Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya, Hatay-31034, Turkey *(e-mail : soylu@mku.edu.tr)

Abstract

Seed-borne fungal diseases are major biotic constraints to seeds. This study was conducted to determine identification and incidence of seed-borne fungal disease agents on seeds of different bottle gourd[Lageneria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] genotypes which were collected from different parts of Turkey bottle gourd seeds. Using agar plate and blotter method as recommended by ISTA, the seed-borne mycoflora of 21 different samples of bottle gourd seeds collected from infested plants growing in the different parts of Turkey was investigated. Agar plate method yielded greater number of fungi followed by blotter method. The occurrence and average per cent incidence of fungi in seed samples tested revealed that Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, Epicoccum purpurascens and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated seed-borne fungal agents from 70.0, 10.0, 9.5 and 4.6% seed lot samples of bottle gourd, respectively. The sources of primary inoculum in seeds are still not well documented but indications suggest that keeping bottle gourd fruits in fields for maturations play an important role in disease transmission from soils. Seed treatment may prove useful as a part of an integrated disease management approach based on improved resistance and good agronomy.

 

34. K. K. DHEDHI, C. J. DANGARIA, Y. H. GHELANI AND H. J. JOSHI [Effect of chemicals on sex expression, growth and yield quality of pistillate parent during castor hybrid (GCH 6) seed production]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 749-752 (2010). Seed Technology Research Unit Main Pearl Millet Research Station Junagadh Agricultural University, Jamnagar-361 006 (Gujarat), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at Main Pearl millet Research Station, JAU, Jamnagar, in a required isolation with 3 : 1 row ratio of female (JP-65) and male (JI-96) parents of castor hybrid GCH-6 in three dates of sowing (1st fortnight of August, September and October) during kharif seasons of 2007 and 2008 to study the effect of chemicals on sex expression, growth and yield quality of pistillate parent during castor hybrid seed production under irrigated conditions. The chemicals viz., gibberelic acid (GA3) (100, 200 and 300 ppm) and ethrel (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1%) were sprayed at 45 and 65 days after sowing on three rows of female parent. Pooled results revealed that years and dates of sowing were non-significant for most of the characters studied except days to 50% flowering and seed yield. While treatments were significant for all the characters studied except per cent pistillate with ISF plants in secondary spike order, days to 50% flowering, 100-seed weight and seed yield. Among the treatments, the application of ethrel @ 0.05% at 45 and 65 DAS significantly suppressed the expression of male flowers (ISF), increased the tendency of pistillate plants and to produce quality seed as compared to control during the studies. Ethrel, generally, produced densely capsules spike and increased number of spikes per plant. Whereas GA3 increased plant height, length of internode and expressed lanky spike with very loose and less number of flowers. Therefore, ethrel has come out as an effective chemical for production of quality seeds during hybrid seed production in castor.

 

35. Tavili Ali, Eisa Bandak, Asghar Farajollahi and Hossein Pouzesh [Seed germination and dormancy breaking techniques for Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 753-757 (2010). Department of Arid and Mountainous Regions Reclamation Faculty of Natural Resources University of Tehran, P. O. Box 31346-93665, Karaj, Iran *(e-mail : asghar32@gmail.com)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of different treatments on seed germination characteristics in species of Halimodendron halodendron. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with 13 treatments and four replications. Thirteen treatments included sulfuric acid concentration (98%) for 5, 10 and 15 min, scarification with file, piercing with needle, scarification together with thiourea 0.1 and 0.3% for 72 h, scarification together with KNO3 0.1 and 0.3% for 72 h, hot water for 5 and 10 min, stratification for one month and control treatment. Results showed that scarification was the best treatment to break seed dormancy and improvement of seed germination characteristics in species of H. halodendron. Also scarification together with thiourea 0.1% had similar and desirable effect, but because of seedling damage and its non-vigority, it could be concluded that this treatment was harmful for H. halodendron as a stimulator and is not recommended. Hot water and stratification had no effect on seed germination. Piercing with needle had a considerable influence after scarification on improvement of H. halodendron seed germination characteristics.

 

36. S. Boroomand Nasab, F. Echresh, M. Albaji*, F. Judi, S. Hamzeh and M. Bahrami [Land suitability evaluation for different irrigation systems in Zaviehha plain, Iran]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 758-764 (2010). Department of Irrigation and Drainage

Faculty of Water Science Shahid Chamran University, Postal Code 61357-43311, Ahwaz, Iran *(e-mail : m_albaji2000@yahoo.co.uk)

Abstract

The main objective of this research was to compare different irrigation methods based upon a parametric evaluation system in an area of 3770 ha in the Zaviehha plain located in the Khuzestan Province, in the south-west of Iran. The soil properties of the study area such as texture, depth, electrical conductivity, drainage, calcium carbonate content and slope were derived from a semi-detailed soil study carried out on the Zaviehha plain on a scale of 1 : 20000. Once the soil properties were analyzed and evaluated, suitability maps were generated for surface, sprinkle and drip irrigation methods using Remote Sensing (RS) Techniques and Geographic Information System (GIS). The obtained results showed that for 705 ha (18.7%) of the study area surface irrigation method was highly recommended, whereas for 908.2 ha (24.1%) of the study area sprinkle and drip irrigation methods would provide to be extremely efficient and suitable; moreover, it was found that 808.7 ha (21.4%) of the study area was incompatible for drip and surface irrigation methods; however, for sprinkle irrigation systems, the unsuitable lands did not exist in this zone. The results demonstrated that by applying sprinkle irrigation instead of drip and surface irrigation methods, the arability of 2090.2 ha (55.5%) in the Zaviehha Plain will improve. In addition by applying drip irrigation instead of sprinkle and surface irrigation methods, the land suitability of 1651.8 ha (43.8%) of this plain will improve. The comparison of the different types of irrigation techniques revealed that the sprinkle and drip irrigation methods were more effective and efficient than the surface irrigation method for improving land productivity. It is of note, however, that the main limiting factors in using surface irrigation method in this area were soil texture and drainage and the main limiting factor in using sprinkle irrigation method was soil texture. Also, the major limiting factors in using drip irrigation method were the soil’s calcium carbonate content and texture.  

 

37. Alireza Masjedi, M. Fathi Moghadam and B. Shomalnasab [Experimental study on roughness of vegetation at natural willows in river floodplains of Iran]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 765-770 (2010). Science and Research Center

Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz Branch, Ahwaz, P. O. Box 1916, Iran *(e-mail : drmasjedi.2007@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Natural river floodplains and adjacent wetlands have vital ecological functions in riverine landscapes. They grow typically a diverse and heterogeneous combination of herbs, shrubs and trees, which plays an essential role in determining water, groundwater, sediment, nutrient and pollutant transport. Thus vegetation is a key factor in the interrelated system of flow, sediment transport and geomorphology in rivers. Flume studies have been carried out to investigate flow structure for relatively low velocities and inundation for vegetation typical to floodplains, such as bushes. Mean velocity profiles and turbulence characteristics from flume experiments on one natural vegetal roughness type were reported. Two relatively new approaches for describing vertical velocity profiles were evaluated with new data. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume with 12.6 m long and 0.5 m wide re-circulating glass-walled flume. The plant studied in this research is river natural willows (with and without leaf) which was studied in non-submerge and sub-critical condition with different velocity, discharge and depths. The height of plants in this is 35 cm with a natural arrangement in a length of 2.8 m put in the bed of a laboratory flume. Willows was native plant of Karoon river in Ahwaz (Iran). The total number of the experiments was 44. The results showed large variations with depth of flow, velocity, Reynolds number and vegetal characteristics. Vegetation on floodplains can reduce non-linearly flow velocity.

 

38. NUPUR [Perception of farmers of Haryana for agri-journalism published in national Hindi dailies]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 771-774 (2010). Department of Communication Management and Technology G. J. University of Science & Technology, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India

Abstract

The present study was conducted during 2010 in four villages in Haryana in the districts of Hisar, Rohtak, Kaithal and Mohindergarh representing Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern agro-climatic zones of Haryana, respectively. On the basis of content analysis of published agri-journalism in 10 National Hindi Dailies at different intervals during 2006 and 2007, a questionnaire was prepared for respondents for randomly selected districts and villages. In total, 800 respondent-farmers were selected in above districts and their villages (200 in each village) and data on various parameters of agri-journalism were collected through personal interview in four villages from respondents and this was analysed by using design ‘Chi-square Test’. The maximum per cent numbers of the respondents viz., 58.62, 56.12, 82.15, 47.37, 74.25, 83.88, 66.50 and 44.00 expressed their opinion, respectively, about level of presentation, relevance, space allotment, knowledge enrichment, attitude, adoption, effectiveness and utility under the categories medium, less, less, good, less, less, medium and medium, respectively, while the corresponding minimum number of respondents for the above items recorded were 3.62, 7.75, 7.37, 4.75, 3.62, 4.00, 6.00 and 5.50 under the categories of less, very good, nil, less, good, good, both in very good and less, less, respectively. Similar trend was found in case of each village. All the respondents agreed in their opinion with each other except space allocation.

 

39. Nupur [Studies on content analysis of agricultural journalism in national Hindi dailies]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 775-780 (2010). Department of Communication Management and Technology G. J. University of Science & Technology, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India

Abstract

The present study on content analysis of publication of agri-journalism in 10 National Hindi Dailies was conducted at 15 days intervals in different months from Nov. 2006 to Oct. 2007 through a prepared schedule on different parameters of published agri-journalism. The data thus collected were statistically analyzed by using design statistical packages for social science (S. P. S. S.). The overall maximum per cent mean number of published items in all the 10 newspapers was found during September, 2007 to the tune of 26.7%, while total minimum (6.7%) was published each in the months of June, July and August, 2007. The overall mean per cent space allotment to advertisement, editorial and agricultural aspects was 19.06, 80.54 and 1.67%, respectively. The total mean number of publication of editorial, articles, features, news, letters to editor, interviews, news analysis and market price was 0.02, 0.02, 0.13, 2.31, 0.02, 0.02, 0.23 and 1.19%, respectively. The corresponding overall mean space allotment to the publication of these items was 2.91, 55.25, 41.91, 287.91, 1.26, 14.55, 41.55 and 115.09 cm, respectively. However, no space were allotted and no number was published to cartoon in all the newspapers under study.

 

40. VIDA RAHIMINEZHAD AND ZAHRA ARZJANI [Role of environmental education in Iran : with the use of other countries experience]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 781-784 (2010). Department of English Faculty of Persian and Foreign Languages Islamic Azad University, Branch of Roodehen, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : vi_rah@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Conserving, improving and protecting natural resources and environment are major concerns of all people. On the one hand development links to industry, technology and on the other hand it causes environmental destruction. It is impossible to work of industrial development and keep environment untouched. Environmental managers are not seeking for such an impossible issue. They are trying to reduce different kinds of pollution and destruction effects alongside the technology improvement. The aim of human growth and development is to achieve the maximum use of natural resources and to conserve them as well, since both of them directly and indirectly are related to each other. It has been demonstrated today that current environmental education lacks much efficacy, and that for such education to be effective, a change of view on the human and environment should be made. To make environmental education effective, firstly the plan and guidelines on the general programme of the education should be provided both formally and informally for different societal layers. The plan and guidelines should determine the objectives of the educational programmes, the responsibilities of learners and instructors, and the educational instruction of the environmental education. In order to achieve the best plan, the experiences of other countries regarding effective environmental education are considered and according to the results a practical effective  plan appropriate to natural, economical, cultural and political characteristics of Iran is provided.

 

41. ONER CETIN AND SEMA BASBAG [Effects of climatic factors on cotton production in semi-arid regions – A review]. Res. on Crops 11 (3) : 785-791 (2010). Department of Irrigation Engineering Agricultural Faculty, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey *(e-mail : oner_cetin@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Cotton is the world’s most important fiber crop and the second most important oil seed crop. Fruiting of cotton plant is determined and influenced by cultivars, climatic conditions, management practices and pests. Climatic factors such as temperature, wind, rainfall and relative humidity significantly affect the boll production of cotton. High temperature, especially more than 30°C, reduces the boll retention and thus final yield. Strong winds may also reduce the yield due to boll shedding. Likewise continuous rain during flowering and boll opening will impair the pollination and may thus reduce fiber quality. However, increasing amount of rainfall in early growing period of cotton can result in higher yield. In addition, the water requirement of cotton depends on climate and length of the total growing period. In this paper, effects of climatic factors on cotton yield in semi-arid regions are evaluated and discussed based on carried out some currently studies.

 

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