Research on Crops
Volume 10, Number 1 (April, 2009)
 

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
md@cropresearch.org

 
1 Shahram Lack, Mohammad Reza dadnia and i. shirvani [Nitrogen use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in climatical conditions of Ahwaz, Iran]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 1-4 (2009). Research & Science Branch Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran
 

ABSTRACT

       Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Ahwaz is planted as a winter crop using a raised-bed, furrow-irrigated system and high fertilizer N rates. The N use of wheat planted following conventional tillage using a top dressing (TD) and partitioning nitrogen (PN) in development stages. Three cultivars were used in this study and each wheat plot was split into N fertilizer (Nf) treatments : five applied at planting (0, 80, 120 and 150 kg/ha). Total N uptake for 120 and 150 kg Nf/ha at the 1st node stage was 160 and 10% greater, respectively, than at planting. In 0 and 75 kg/ha treatments, 18% of the difference in wheat grain yields was due to the N supply component at low N rates; at high N rates and 95% was due to N use efficiency.
2. Shahram Lack, Mohammad reza dadnia and m. ghanbarpoor [Effect of waterlogging periods on kernel yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 5-11 (2009). Research & Science Branch Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran
 

ABSTRACT

        In order to investigate the effects of the waterlogging periods on wheat grain yield and yield components among cultivars, a research was conducted in center of agricultural research in Ahwaz, using a treatment method of split-plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replications. This research was based on two factors such as wheat varieties (Chamran, Virinak, S-80-18, S-78-11) and waterlogging periods (WL) (0, 10 and 20 days). The results showed that in terms of kernel yield and yield components, there were significant differences between cultivars and different periods of WL. With affected by WL, S-80-18 had maximum kernel yield (3.15 t/ha) than other cultivars. The kernel yield was decreased by WL upto 1.78% per day. Among wheat yield components, number of spikes per acre indicated maximum damage from WL.
3. Elaheh Rabiei, Mahmood Khodambashi, Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti and Abdolrazagh Danesh Shahraki1 [Effect of drought stress on seed traits of oat (Avena sativa)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 12-15 (2009). Department of Medicinal Plants Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, P. O. Box 166, Shahrekord, Iran
 

ABSTRACT

        The effect of drought stress on plants is complex and very dependent on the stage of development. Limited soil moisture influences crop yield by reducing the rate of photosynthesis, leaf area and translocation of assimilate to seed, in addition that seed quality and seed vigour may decrease. Therefore, effect of drought stress on seed vigour and germination of oat (Avena sativa L.) was conducted at the experiment laboratory of Agriculture College of Shahrekord University. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Seed harvested from plants grown under stress and non-stress conditions (after depletion of 80 and 50% depletion of available water, respectively), threshed lema and palea. Germination and seed vigour testing was carried out on seeds in laboratory. The results showed that drought stress had significant effect on seed vigour, germination percentage, radicle and stem dry weight.
4. BASAVALINGAIAH, S. BHASKAR, J. JANARDHAN, C. A. SRINIVASAMURTHY, B. N. DHANANJAYA AND H. C. GIRISHA [Effect of coffee pulp effluent irrigation on growth and yield of baby corn and chemical properties of soil]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 16-19 (2009). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India.
 

ABSTRACT

        To ascertain the effect of coffee pulp effluent on performance of baby corn and its effect on soil properties, a field investigation was carried out during summer season of 2004. The study clearly indicated that treated coffee pulp effluent could be used as source of irrigation for production of baby corn. Among soil chemical properties, pH decreased with raw effluent, whereas treated effluent irrigation increased the pH. Electrical conductivity and organic carbon of soil were significantly increased by the effluent irrigation. Soil available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were significantly increased due to effluent irrigation as compared to fresh water irrigation.
5. K. kalaraju, n. deva kumar, n. nagaraja and kakol b. ningappa [Effect of methods of planting on growth and yield of finger millet genotypes under organic farming]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 20-24 (2009). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India.
 

ABSTRACT

        A field experiment was conducted in the farmer’s field during kharif 2006 under rainfed condition on loamy sand soil. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. There were 12 treatment combinations comprising three finger millet genotypes (GPU 28, Pichakaddi ragi and Bilimundaga ragi), two planting methods (line sowing–22.5 x 10 cm and square planting/Netti ragi–30 x 30 cm spacing) and two FYM levels (10.0 and 12.5 t FYM/ha). Results of the study indicated that significantly higher number of tillers (20/plant), total dry matter accumulation (112.33 g/plant), number of fingers (8.60/earhead), earhead length (9.0 cm) and grain yield of 35.19 q/ha were recorded in GPU 28 with application of 12.5 t FYM/ha under square planting. Pichakaddi ragi with application of 12.5 t FYM/ha under square planting recorded significantly higher straw yield of 60 q/ha and medium grain yield (30.56 q/ha).
6. A. N. Ugale, A. C. Sawant and P. G. Chavan [Effect of intercropping of niger in kharif vari (Panicum miliaceum L.) with organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on yield, economics and intercropping indices]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 25-28 (2009). Department of Agronomy Dr. B.S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, District Ratnagiri (M. S.), India.
 

ABSTRACT

        Field experiment conducted at Dapoli revealed that niger was more remunerative intercrop in proso millet, as it enhanced the growth and yield of proso millet. It should be grown in 3 : 1 row ratio with the application of inorganic sources of nutrients for obtaining higher yields. When niger is grown as intercrop in proso millet was found economically profitable with different row ratios and with the application of inorganic sources of nutrients over organic source. Proso millet+niger in 3 : 1 row ratio recorded higher net returns followed by 2 : 1 row ratio. Higher cost : benefit ratio was recorded in 3 : 1 row ratio (1.77) followed by 2 : 1 row ratio (1.73). Crop indices such as land equivalent ratio was higher in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 row ratio (1.41), proso millet equivalent yield was more in 1 : 3 row ratio (57.02) when applied with inorganic sources of nutrients, followed by 3 : 1 row ratio (56.01). Relative crowding coefficient of proso millet was higher in 3 : 1 row ratio (4.69) indicating more proso millet yield than expected yield. Similar trend was observed in case of aggressivity. Crop performance ratio was improved in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 row ratios (1.66).
7. P. A. Babajide, W. B. Akanbi, L. O. Alamu, E. A. Ewetola and O. O. Olatunji [Growth, nodulation and biomass yield of soybean (Glycine max L.) as influenced by bio-fertilizers under simulated eroded soil condition]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 29-34 (2009). Department of Agronomy Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
 

ABSTRACT

        Green house experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different rhizobial and mycorrhizal species on growth, nodulation and biomass yield of soybean (Glycine max), grown under low fertile eroded soil condition in the south-western Nigeria. It was a factorial experiment with two levels of soil (sterile and non-sterile), inoculation with Glomus clarum (with and without) and inoculation with either R25B or IRJ2180A rhizobial strain, while the control received no inoculation of any of the microbial strains. Each treatment was replicated three times and the trial was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD). Plant growth and biomass yield were significantly enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in both sterile and non-sterile soil conditions, compared to the control. Combined inoculation of mycorrhiza with any of the rhizobial strains significantly improved plant growth and biomass production. The effect of the combined inoculation was particularly more effective with mycorrhiza+R25B rhizobium inoculation which had the highest values of plant height (68.8 cm), stem circumference (2.94 cm), number of leaves (39.0), shoot dry weight (16.1 g) and root dry weight (4.6 g), while the control had the least values of 33.2 cm, 0.60 cm, 15.0, 4.4 g and 1.6 g, respectively. Nodulation was equally enhanced by mycorrhizal and rhizobial inoculations under sterile and unsterile soil conditions. The percentage mycorrhizal root colonization values ranged from 4.0 to 42%. Root colonization was highest for mycorrhizal inoculated plants grown on sterile soil. Thus, dual inoculation of mycorrhiza+ R25B rhizobium, may be beneficial to soybean production in the tropics, where nutrients particularly available P and total N are very low. Hence, a relatively low input technology, for improved soil fertility/productivity and sustainable arable, green manure and forage crops’ production.
8. AMIT KUMAR CHAURASIA, G. P. RICHHARIA and SHRIDHA CHAURASIA [Effect of doses and sources of sulphur on growth, nodulation, physiological characters and yield of soybean]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 35-37 (2009). Department of Botany Government Post Graduate College, Satna-485 001 (Madhya Pradesh), India.
 

ABSTRACT

        Field experiment was conducted on three sulphur sources (gypsum, pyrite and single super-phosphate) and five doses of sulphur (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg/ha) on Typic Chromustert during kharif seasons of 2006 and 2007 at Tikamgarh. Results revealed that single super-phosphate was the yielder, nodulation, growth and physiological characters significantly over gypsum and pyrite. Highest yield, nodulation, growth and physiological characters were also recorded in single super-phosphate. Application of 40 kg S/ha resulted in significant increase in yield, nodulation, growth and physiological characters of soybean, but the significant response was observed upto 30 kg S/ha.
9. S. S. Suroshe, A. B. Chorey And M. R. Thakur [Productivity and economics of maize-based intercropping systems in relation to nutrient management]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 38-41 (2009). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
 

ABSTRACT

        An experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2005 on intercropping of maize with different legumes, to maximize the productivity and economic returns per unit area of maize based intercropping system under various fertility levels. Maize intercropped with cowpea was more compatible and advantageous than other legume intercropping. Various yield attributes of maize were superior under sole cropping, followed by maize+cowpea intercropping system. This combination recorded the highest maize-equivalent yield (52.94 q/ha) with 11.14% increase over sole maize. Among the fertility levels, recommended dose of fertilizers (120 : 60 : 30 kg NPK/ha) proved more economic than rest of the fertility levels in maize-legume intercropping system.
10.

Dushyant Kumar, Ravindra Nath Verma and H. N. Tripathi [Productivity and economics of breeder seed of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as affected by sowing methods, seed rates and sulphur levels]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 42-47 (2009). Department of Agronomy C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (Uttar Pradesh), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        In a field experiment of breeder seed production, two sowing methods (regular and border), three seed rates (100, 50 and 25% of recommended) and four sulphur levels (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg/ha) were tried to evaluate their effect on productivity and economics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) at C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur during rabi seasons of 2005-06 and 2006-07. Seed and straw yield produced higher in regular method than border sowing by the margins of 3.8 and 9.6%, respectively. The seed rate of 100% recommended produced significantly highest yield by the margins of 3.3 and 7.6% in seed yield and 10.8 and 27.5% in straw yield over 50 and 25% seed rates, respectively. Seed and straw yields increased significantly with sulphur application upto 30 kg/ha. This level produced 17.1 and 5.9% seed yield and 12.6 and 6.4% higher straw yield than zero and 15 kg S/ha, respectively. Net profit was significantly higher in regular method than border sowing by the margin of Rs. 1531/ha or 2.2%. Seed rate of 100% recommended earned Rs. 851/ha or 1.2% and Rs. 3233/ha or 4.8% higher compared to 50 and 25% seed rates, respectively, with significant variation. Application of S at 30 kg/ha gave Rs. 12145/ha or 15.3% and Rs. 5410/ha or 6.3% higher net profit than zero and 15 kg S/ha, respectively. However, return/rupee responded only upto 15 kg S/ha by the margin of Rs. 0.44.
11.

Sunita Sheokand, Anita Kumari and Jai Dayal [Genotypic variation in legumes for nutrient stress tolerance–a review]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 48-56 (2009). Department of Botany and Plant Physiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Availability of nutrient elements can be a major constraint to plant growth in many environments of world, especially the tropics where soils are extremely low in nutrients. Genotypic differences in nutrient use efficiency are linked with root nutrient acquisition capacity or with utilization by the plant or both. Legumes express a wide array of phenotypic traits that improve adaptation to low nutrient availability, including increased biomass allocation to roots, root architectural traits that enhance topsoil foraging, increased density of root system and root hairs. Plant root exudates also have a major effect on the acquisition of mineral nutrients required for plant growth. Nutrient movement across roots to xylem is also responsible for variations in nutrient use efficiencies. The utilization efficiency can be measured as agronomic efficiency or physiological efficiency.
12.

S. M. Navlakhe, D. D. Mankar and P. K. Rananavare [Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrient on growth parameters and yield of rainfed cotton]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 57-60 (2009). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        With a view to access the efficient and optimum organic sources of nutrient and inorganic fertilizer, a field experiment was carried out at Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishl Vidyapeeth, Akola to study effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrient on growth parameters and yield of rainfed cotton during kharif 2004-05 in FRBD with two factors as organic sources and inorganic sources. Observation on growth parameters, yield and yield parameters of seed cotton and stalk yield indicated significantly higher values with application of vermicompost at the rate of 2 t/ha and FYM application @ 5t/ha was at par with it. The Inorganic sources of fertilizer 50 : 25 : 25 level indicated significantly higher yield over others. Leucaena loppings and no fertilizer recorded the lowest seed cotton yield and growth parameters.
13.

S. AVUDAITHAI, V. VEERABADRAN AND N. SATHEESHKUMAR [Yield attributes, yield and quality parameters of cotton as influenced by growth stage based drip fertigation]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 61-64 (2009). Department of Agronomy Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of varying drip irrigation and fertigation regimes during different growth stages of cotton during summer 2004 and winter 2004-05 at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. Drip irrigation regimes with wetted area fraction (WAF), 0.5 : 1.0 : 0.6 (I4), 0.5 : 1.0 : 0.8 (I5) and 0.5 : 1.0 : 1.0 (I6) recorded increased number of sympodial branches/plant, number of fruiting points, number of bolls/plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield compared to drip irrigation regimes , with WAF, 0.25 : 0.75 : 0.6 (I1), 0.25 : 0.75 : 0.8 (I2) and 0.25 : 0.75 : 1.0 (I3). Seed cotton yield increased with drip irrigation regimes I4, I5 and I6. Ginning percentage did not vary much due to drip irrigation regimes. I2 recorded longer staple length. Drip irrigation regimes had marginal effect on micronaire value and uniformity ratio. Bundle strength values were higher under low drip irrigation regimes of I1, I2 and I3. Bartlett’s index was higher with higher drip irrigation regimes, I4, I5 and I6.
14.

Süleyman Kizil [Essential oil composition of different originated summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 65-67 (2009). Department of Field Crops Faculty of Agriculture, Dicle University 21280, Diyarbakir, Turkey

 

ABSTRACT

        The study reports variation in the essential oil contents of savory plants collected from Diyarbakir and Kahramanmaras provinces of Turkey. Essential oil components of samples determined by GC showed that major components of Diyarbakýr origin summer savory were carvacrol (39.8%), thymol (26.1%), a-pinene (8.8%), myrcene (8.4%). Kahramanmaras origin summer savory had major components as carvacrol (58.5%), a-terpineol (29.1%), a-pinene (2.9%), camphene (2.9%) and myrcene (1.6%).
15.

K. N. Pawar, S. S. Rao, Shamarao Jahagirdar and B. D. Biradar [Physiological basis for growth and yield variation in rabi sorghum genotypes under receding soil moisture situation]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 68-71 (2009). All India Co-ordinated Sorghum Improvement Project, RARS, Bijapur University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Twelve genotypes comprising released varieties/hybrids and parental lines were screened for the drought tolerance under receding soil moisture situation at Regional Research Station, Bijapur for two consecutive years. The entries RSP-3, E-36-1, DSV-4, DSV-5 and RSLG-262 were found promising in medium soil. Photosynthetic rate, leaf area index, total dry matter, relative water content and harvest index were identified as important physiological parameters for drought tolerance in rabi ecosystem. The unique traits such as stay green type and delayed senescence were identified as key components in governing tolerance to terminal drought stress in rabi tract on Northern Karnataka. The entries which showed better promise for all above physiological parameters are M 35-1, RSLG-262, RSP-3 and DSV-4.
16.

MANJINDER KAUR BEDI, A. K. JAITLY AND KAMLA KANWAR [Microbial count in soil as influenced by the addition of organic and inorganic fertilizers under different moisture regimes]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 72-76 (2009). CSKHPKV, HAREC, Dhaulakuan, District Sirmour (H. P.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Incubation study was carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on microbial count in soil amended with green manure crops, compost, fertilizer nitrogen and their different combinations at CSKHPKV Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, Dhaulakuan. Microbial study revealed that number of bacteria and actinomycetes were lower under anaerobic conditions as compared to aerobic conditions. This indicated slow decomposition under anaerobic condition. Bacterial growth was maximum upto second week, while actinomycetes increased in the third week followed by decrease under both moisture regimes. Bacterial number was higher than actinomycetes population under both conditions. Soil amended with green manures alongwith 50% N+compost showed significantly higher bacterial and actinomycetes counts as compared to other treatments under both types of moisture regimes.
17.

E. A. Makinde, H. Tijani Eniola and O. Fagbola* [Effect of organic, organomineral and NPK fertilizers on soil pH, organic matter and micronutirent content in two soil types in Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 77-85 (2009). Department of Agronomy University of Ibadan, Ibadan

 

ABSTRACT

        Continuous use of inorganic fertilizers on farmers’ plots has low acceptability, while the organic fertilizers may be slow in upgrading soil properties. In addition soil types can also influence the efficiency of fertilizers. It is hypothesized that organomineral fertilizer (OMF) can be efficient in ameliorating soil properties, hence the acidity and micronutrient status in two soil types  (Orthic Luvisol and Dystric Fuvisol) in Lagos State were evaluated under OMF applications. Field experiment was conducted with three different planting periods. Eight fertilizer treatments : control (no fertilizer), Pacesetter Grade B (PGB) 100%, PGB+NPK (75 : 25), PGB+NPK 50 : 50), Kola Pod Husk (KPH) 100%, KPH+NPK (75 : 25), KPH+NPK (50 : 50) and NPK (100%) were tested at first planting. Residual effects of fertilizer were assessed in the second and third planting. It was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil chemical analyses were carried out. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Organic and OMF treated plots improved buffering capacity of soils, while soils under NPK exhibited high soil acidity (low pH) at both the locations. The micronutrient contents of the soil with organic and OMF were lower at the three planting periods compared to control and NPK plots. The soil pH, and organic carbon were positively influenced by the application of the organic and organomineral fertilizers at both the locations. The buffering capacity of the fertilizer treatments was in the order : KPH (100%) >PGB (100%) > KPH+NPK (75 : 25)> KPH+NPK (50 : 50) > control > NPK. The micronutrient status of the soil was influenced by the fertilizer treatments in the order : PGB (100%) > PGB+NPK (75 : 25) > PGB+NPK (50 : 50) KPH (100%) > KPH+NPK (75 : 25) > KPH+NPK (50 : 50)> NPK > control.
18.

Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Mohsen Bahrami, Khodayar Abdollahi, Mohsen Moradzadeh and Ahmad Reza Golparvar [Agro-climatic suitability mapping for German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) cultivation by GIS in north of Khuzestan, Iran]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 86-89 (2009). Department of Medicinal Plants Islamic Azad University of Shahrekord Branch, Rahmatiyeh, P. O. Box 166, Shahrekord, Iran

 

ABSTRACT

        The study was carried out in north of Khuzestan province, south-west Iran. The study area covered approximately 1057890 ha of area of Khuzestan province. This area is located between latitude 31°39' N and 32°58' N and between longitude 48º16' W and 49°52' W. The elevations ranged between 0 and 3700 masl. Climate information was obtained from meteorological stations located within and close to the study area for a 10-year period (1997-2007). Climate and DEM data layers were prepared and suitability classes were determined, using simple limitation (SLA) purposed by modified FAO method, were matched against specific German chamomile (Matricaria camomilla L.) requirements derived from agricultural experiments and literature review. The results of overlay maps for climate variables by simple limitation approach indicated that 13.5% (132962.0 ha), 39.8% (391205.2 ha), 46.6% (457731.3 ha) and 0% of lands had highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3) and not suitable (N) for German chamomile cultivation, respectively. In general, this research provided information at regional level that could be used by farmers to select crop pattern and suitability.
19.

VANDANA NIKHADE, S. L. BORKAR, SHIVANGI MAHAKALKAR AND K. D. BISANE [Bio-intensive management of sucking pest complex of okra]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 90-93 (2009). Department of Entomology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        The field study was planned and conducted to evaluate the efficacy of bio-intensive management of sucking pest complex of okra. The treatment with endosulfan @ 0.07% recorded the highest reduction of aphids (85.97%), jassids (89.07%), thrips (72.52%), whiteflies (78.56%) and mites (63.39%) population. The next effective treatments were NSE 5%, KSE 5% and CASE 5% found equally effective. The application of endosulfan @ 0.07% received the highest yield of okra fruits to the extent of 76.78 q/ha followed by NSE 5% (68.02 q/ha).
20.

SUMAN SHARMA AND P. K. MEHTA [Evaluation of plant extracts on the larval weight, pupation and adult emergence activities of cabbage butterfly]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 94-97 (2009). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 ( H. P.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

       

Efficacy of methanolic extract of Lantana camara (L.), Eupatorium adenophorum (Spreng), Artemisia bravifolia (Wall), Melia azedarach (L.) and Rumex nepalensis was studied at 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0% concentrations against cabbage butterfly. R. nepalensis resulted in maximum reduction in weight being at par with A. bravifolia. Lantana camara and E. adenophorum resulted in significantly lower effect on reduction in weight. Reduction in larval weight varied from 25.1 to 61.3% with the highest and the lowest corresponding to R. nepalensis at 5.0% and L. camara (1.25%). A. bravifolia significantly reduced the proportion of pupation to the maximum extent than other plant extracts followed by R. nepalensis. Maximum pupal formation was observed in E. adenophorum and L. camara treated larvae. Pupal formation also responded to concentration and increased significantly (0.0-43.1%) with decrease in concentration from 5.0 to 1.25% with complete inhibition at 5.0% concentration. Similar trend was observed with respect to adult emergence of P. brassicae.

21.

SUMAN SHARMA AND P. K. MEHTA [Bioefficacy of plant extracts against cabbage aphid]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 98-100 (2009). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 ( H. P.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Efficacy of methanolic extract of Lantana camara (L.), Eupatorium adenophorum (Spreng), Artemisia brevifolia (Wall), Melia azedarach (L.), Polygonum sp., Vitex nigundo (L.), Rumex nepalensis and Ageratum conyzoides was studied at 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0% concentrations against cabbage aphid. V. nigundo caused significantly highest reduction in aphid settlement (52.6%) at 5.0% concentration, but was found at par with M. azedarach at same concentration. Treatment with Polygonum sp. resulted in least reduction in aphid settlement. R. nepalensis resulted in highest reduction in aphid weight being at par with E. adenophorum. A. brevifolia brought about minimum reduction in aphid weight. Concentration of the crude extracts also had significant influence on reduction of weight. Significantly higher reduction in aphid weight was recorded at 5.0% concentration in all the plant extracts.
22.

G. S. HARI, A. K. KUMAR AND A.V. REDDY [Effect of NPK on growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. Prakash under irrigated conditions in Central Telangana Zone of Andhra Pradesh]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 101-102 (2009). J. V. R. Horticultural Research Station, Malyal-506 101, Mahabubabad, Warangl District (A. P.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

      A field experiment was conducted during 2005-06 and 2006-07 in kharif season at J. V. R. Horticultural Research Station, Malyal under Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh. This experiment was conducted with four treatments consisting of different doses of inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer in randomized block design with five replications i. e. inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer with different doses (220, 260, 300 and 340 kg/ha) to find out the effect on growth and yield of chilli in cv. Prakash. The treatment 340 : 60 : 80 kg/ha of NPK recorded the highest fresh and dry pod yield (112.43 and 50.58 q/ha, respectively) and cost : benefit ratio was also high in the same treatment (1 : 5.2).
23.

G. S. HARI, A. K. KUMAR AND A. V. REDDY [Effect of organic manures in combination with ‘N’ fertilizer on growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) under irrigated condition of Central Telangana Zone of Andhra Pradesh]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 103-104 (2009). J. V. R. Horticultural Research Station, Malyal-506 101, Mahabubabad, District Warangal (A. P.), India

 

ABSTRACT

        A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2005-06 and 2006-07 at J. V. R. Horticultural Research Station, Malyal under Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh to study the effect of organic manures viz., neem cake (NC, 10 and 20 q/ha) and vermi compost (VC, 7 and 3.5 t/ha) in combination with nitrogenous fertilizer (50 and 75% RNF) on bulb growth yield and quality on onion, cv. Arka kalyan. Significantly the highest bulb weight and bulb yield were recorded in treatment with the application of VC @ 7 t/ha+75% RNF (75.53 g and 202.85 q/ha, respectively). With regards to quality, the highest TSS (%) was recorded in the same treatment followed by application of NC @ 20 t/ha+75% RNF. The cost : benefit ratio was highest in 100% RNF (7.7) compared to other treatments.

24.

J. SHERLY and A. SHANTHI [Variability, heritability and genetic advance in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 105-108 (2009). Department of Horticulture Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute Karaikal-609 603, U. T. of Puducherry, India.

 

ABSTRACT

        An investigation was carried out with 24 genotypes of brinjal for variability, heritability and genetic advance. The study indicated that high estimate of phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation was observed for fruit length, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was registered for all the characters except total number of harvest and ascorbic acid. These characters can be effectively improved through selection.
25.

H. L. CHANDRAKUMAR, C. T. ASHOK KUMAR, K. R. SHASHIDHAR and M. M. VENKATESHA [Effect of organic sources of nutrients on the incidence of whitefly on brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 109-112 (2009). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Field studies on organic and inorganic materials were evaluated against brinjal whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. at vegetable revolving fund scheme, Division of Horticulture, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore. Among the treatments VC+biofertilizer+insecticide, FYM+biofertilizer+insecticide and VC+biofertilizer+neemcake applied plots recorded less population (4.53, 4.71 and 5.15/3 leaves/plant, respectively). The next effective treatment was FYM+biofertilizer+neemcake, which recorded 6.07/3 leaves/plant as against the maximum of 16.18/3 leaves/plant in inorganic NPK treated plots. The corresponding overall per cent reductions in these treatments were 72.00, 70.89, 68.17 and 62.48 over NPK.
26.

M. S. Kahlon [Rooting density studies under drip and furrow irrigated tomatoes]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 113-115 (2009). Department of Soils Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Rooting density and moisture distribution were determined on drip and furrow irrigated tomatoes in order to compare the two systems of irrigation. Studies conducted have revealed that furrow irrigated tomatoes had higher rooting density for all depths as compared to drip irrigated ones. The rooting density trend, however, remained the same with maximum occurring in 0-15 cm layer and decreasing with depth. In drip irrigation, maximum moisture occurred near the plant root surface and it decreased as the distance from plant increased across the ridge. Moisture content decreased with depth. On the other hand in furrow irrigation the trend was reverse i. e. minimum moisture was observed near the plant surface and it increased as the distance was increased from plant root surface. There was increase in moisture content with increase in soil depth, which is reverse of a drip irrigation pattern.
27.

L. L. JIVANI, M. D. KHANPARA, J. H. VACHHANI AND V. H. KACHHADIA [Genetic analysis of pod yield and its components in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 116-118 (2009). Main Oilseeds Research Station Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001(Gujarat), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        A diallel analysis in groundnut was carried out from an eight-parent diallel cross excluding reciprocals to obtain information on the genetic architecture of pod yield and five of its component attributes. Both additive and dominance gene actions were important for all the characters; however, the magnitude of dominance was higher than additive component. The mean degree of dominance (H1/D)1/2 was found more than unity, confirming the presence of over dominance for all the characters. This suggests that heterosis breeding is worthwhile to get higher gain in groundnut but it is not economically feasible. The positive and negative genes were asymmetrically distributed among the parental lines. The number of dominant genes was more than the recessive genes for all the characters except 100-kernel weight. The narrow sense heritability was found to be high for all the traits except 100-kernel weight.
28.

V. Gouri Shankar, P. Venkata Ramana Rao, N. A. Ansari and M. Ilyas Ahmed [Combining ability studies using thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) system in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 119-123 (2009). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Two-line breeding using thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) is a better alternative for three-line breeding in rice in tropical region. Six elite TGMS lines were crossed with eight diverse male parents. The resultant 48 hybrids were evaluated alongwith their parents and two standard checks at three locations. The pooled analysis of variance for combining ability revealed significant differences due to environments, parents and hybrids and various interactions indicating the existence of wide variability in the material studied. The ratios of gca to sca variances revealed that non additive gene action was predominant over additive gene action in the inheritance of all the eight characters studied. The gca effects of the parents in pooled analysis revealed that the lines DRR 1S and DRR 20S and the testers KMR 3R and BCW 56R were promising general combiners for grain yield and other yield contributing traits. Based on the sca effects in pooled analysis, 11 hybrids viz., DRR 1S x IR 58025B, DRR 6S x APMS 6B, DRR 6S x PMS 17B, DRR 7S x EPLT 109R, DRR 17S x APMS 6B, DRR 17S x C 20R, DRR 17S x BCW 56R, DRR 20S x CRMS 32B, DRR 20S x KMR 3R, DRR 22S x PMS 17B and DRR 22S x KMR 3R were identified as promising for grain yield per plant and other characters.
29.

A. V. Nagireddy and D. P. B. Jyothula [Heritability and interrelationship of yield and certain agronomic traits in wheat]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 124-127 (2009). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Allahabad Agricultural Institute Deemed University, Allahabad (U. P.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Variability and correlation studies were conducted for eight quantitative characters in 60 genotypes of wheat. Analysis of variance revealed the presence of considerable variability among the genotypes for all the eight characters. Genotypic variance was found to be high for number of tillers per metre, number of grains per spike and plant height. High heritability coupled with genetic advance was found for plant height, number of tillers per metre and number of grains per spike. Correlation studies showed positive correlation of yield per plant with number of tillers per metre, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. Exercising of selection pressure on these characters will be fruitful in improvement of the crop for yield.
30.

Mohammad reza dadnia, SHAHRAM lack, b. azar afrooz and a. modhej [Evaluation of biochemical markers in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 128-131 (2009). Research & Science Branch Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran

 

ABSTRACT

        Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield is limited by inadequate water supply in the growing season. Choosing a suitable programme and genotype with the appropriate phenology that matches crop growth to the water suply will produce optimum grain yield. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of selenium on biochemical markers such as Di Tyrosine (Di-TY) and Di Hydroxy Goanozine (8-OH-DG). An experiment was conducted on a silt loamy soil with three barley cultivars. Soil water content was measured to gypsum blocks. Selenium greatly influenced biomarkers activities. The optimum yield was produced at water deficit situation in selenium treatments. Markers activities affected water deficit and significantly increased in selenium treatments. However, markers can to used be selection cultivars that are resistant to water deficit stress.
31.

PRIYA K. VAGHELA, D. B. PATEL, D. J. PARMAR AND SNEHA S. MACWANA [Genetic variability studies for baby corn (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 132-134 (2009). Department of Agricultural Botany Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability (broad sense) and genetic advance were estimated in 54 diverse genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.). The differences between the genotypes were highly significant for all the 12 characters under study. Very high heritability for all the characters was observed except for number of baby corn per plant and plant height. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance revealed predominance of additive gene effects. High heritability with high genetic advance as percentage of mean was observed for baby corn yield per plot, ratio between baby corn yield to cob yield per plot and total soluble sugar. Hence, these traits are the most suitable for further improvement through selection.
32.

PRIYA K. VAGHELA, D. B. PATEL, D. J. PARMAR AND SNEHA S. MACWANA [Correlation and path coefficient analysis in baby corn (Zea mays L.)*]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 135-137 (2009). Department of Agricultural Botany Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        The genotypic and phenotypic correlation of baby corn yield with different yield components was estimated from 54 diverse genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.). The genotypic correlation coefficients were, in general, similar in direction of phenotypic correlation and higher in magnitude than phenotypic correlation coefficient. Number of baby corn per plant exhibited positive significant correlations with baby corn yield, while green fodder yield per plot and plant height had negative correlations with baby corn yield. The path-coefficient analysis of baby corn yield indicated that ear length followed by number of baby corn per plant, ear height and green fodder yield per plot was the most important component with positive direct effects.
33.

O. P. Verma, K. Kumar, Ram Bhajan, K. N. Maurya, H. K. Singh and N. K. Singh [Heterosis in relation to combining ability for seed yield, component traits, oil and protein content in yellow sarson (Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 138-141 (2009). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Narendra Nagar, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Ten diverse genotypes of yellow sarson and toria were crossed with three varieties of yellow sarson (testers) in a line x tester mating design, resulting in 30 hybrids. These 13 parents and 30 crosses were used to estimate general combining ability of parents, specific combining ability of crosses and heterosis over better parent and standard variety (YST-151). Among lines, none of the parents was found good general combiner for all the traits studied. Only Pusa Gold among testers showed significant gca effects for number of siliquae/plant. Non-additive gene action played an important role in the expression of seed yield, its components, oil content and protein content. Based on sca effects and heterosis, the superior crosses were identified for each trait. Inter-specific crosses (toria x yellow sarson) viz., PT 303 x YST-151 and NDT-06-1 x NDYS-2018 showed significant sca effects and heterosis for seed yield, siliquae on main raceme, 1000-seed weight and protein content. At intra-specific level (yellow sarson x yellow sarson) NDYS-116-1 x YST-151 and NDYS-107 x YST-151 exhibited significant positive heterosis over BP as well as SV for number of siliquae on main raceme, 1000-seed weight and protein content.
34.

S. N. Tavade, S. K. Burghate and S. P. Patil [Combining ability studies in some restorer lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 142-146 (2009). Oilseed Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (Maharashtra), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Ten restorer lines were crossed in diallel fashion excluding reciprocals to obtain 45 crosses to elucidate the information on the combining ability possessed by them for seed yield, yield components and oil content. Forty-five crosses were evaluated for 11 different quantitative characters. Among 10 restorer lines ID-3/147 R was found best general combiner for seed yield per plant and oil content, while cross 298 R x ID-3/147 R was found best cross combination for seed yield per plant and 274 R x BC-3-1R for oil content. The cross combination BC-3-1 R x ID-3/147 R was found promising seed yield and its contributing characters including oil content. The parental genotype ID-3/147 R was found involved in most of promising crosses which revealed its potential to transfer desirable characters in progeny/good combiner.
35. Ahmad Reza Golparvar and Abdollah Ghasemi-Pirbalouti [Correlation and path analysis of seed and oil yield in spring safflower cultivars]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 147-151 (2009). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran
 

ABSTRACT

        Identification of the important seed and oil yield components in safflower is very efficient in genetic improvement of these traits via indirect selection. For this reason, 10 spring safflower cultivars were sown in a randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan. Results of correlation, regression and path analysis designed traits 1000-seed weight and seed number/plant had considerable positive and direct effects on plant seed yield and accounted for the largest amount of variation existing in this trait. On the other hand, traits 1000-seed weight, days to physiological maturity and seed number/plant were the most important plant oil yield components and suggested for breeding of this trait. Overall, results revealed that selection for higher amounts of traits 1000-seed weight and seed number/plant can improve indirectly plant seed and oil yield in spring safflower cultivars especially in early breeding generations.
36. Somnath Roy, Ananda Mukhopadhyay and G. Gurusubramanian [Antifeedant and insecticidal activity of Clerodendron infortunatum Gaertn. (Verbinaceae) extract on tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Hetoraptera : Miridae)]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 152-158 (2009). Entomology Research Unit Department of Zoology North Bengal University, Darjeeling-734 013, India
 

ABSTRACT

        Antifeedant and insecticidal activities of Clerodendron infortunatum Gaertn., a common weed, were investigated on eggs, nymphs and adults of tea mosquito bug (TMB), Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse. Different solvent extracts (water, methanol, acetone and petroleum ether) of C. infortunatum at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 8%) were used. These solvent extracts of exhibited mortality of H. theivora in the tune of 20-60% in water, 37-77% in petroleum ether, 40-80% in acetone, and the highest mortality 70-97% in methanol extract. Depending on LC50 values the relative toxicity was found to be in order of methanol extracts > petroleum-ether extracts > acetone extracts > water extracts. Significant egg mortality and prolonged incubation period were observed in H. theivora eggs when sprayed with different concentrations of solvent extracts (except water) on freshly laid eggs of H. theivora over control. Higher concentrations (4 and 8%) of C. infortunatum showed higher rate of egg mortality than lower concentrations (1 and 2%). Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of C. infortunatum caused more or less same egg mortality under laboratory conditions. Further, the extracts of C. infortunatum found to be effective in prolongation of incubation and killing the neonate nymphs of hatched H. theivora that successfully hatched from the treated eggs. High antifeedant activity was noticed in all the concentrations of different solvent extracts and feeding spots of H. theivora in tea foliage were reduced in the tune of 38.13-87.24% over untreated control. Petroleum ether extract exhibited highest antifeedant property by deterring H. theivora than the other three solvents. In field condition both lower and higher concentrations of different solvent extracts of C. infortunatum registered a significant per cent reduction of feeding punctures when compared with untreated check. No phytotoxic effect was observed in field. Made tea samples were taint free. Organoleptic test revealed leaf, infusions and liquor strength as good, scoring 6.5-7.0 on a 10-point scale. Availability and distribution of this weed (C. infortunatum) in and around tea growing areas of sub-Himalayan Terai and the Dooars, alongwith its processing for economic utility have been described. In the light of above findings, the feasibility of its inclusion in the current IPM programme of tea has also been discussed.
37.

C. Gopalakrishnan, V. Valluvaparidasan and T. Anand [Role of rice insect-pests in transmission of rice sheath rot pathogen, Sarocladium oryzae]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 159-161 (2009). Department of Plant Pathology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

 

ABSTRACT

        Four important rice insect-pests, namely, green leaf hopper, brown plant hopper, mealy bugs and earhead bugs were investigated for their role in transmitting rice sheath rot pathogen, Sarocladium oryzae using three rice cultivars under glass house conditions. The results indicated that 20% of brown plant hopper and 63% of mealy bugs carried S. oryzae on their body after seven days of feeding infected rice plants kept inside insect proof cages. Mealy bugs and brown plant hoppers which were earlier allowed to feed on sheath rot infected plants helped in the transmission of the sheath rot pathogen to healthy plants and typical sheath rot symptoms were observed on 58 and 24% tillers, respectively. The minimum population required for effective transmission of S. oryzae was four mealy bugs and six brown plant hoppers/tiller. Green leaf hopper and earhead bugs did not transmit S. oryzae at different population levels tested.
38.

INDRA HOODA, S. S. KARWASRA AND M. S. BENIWAL [Effect of Maha Pancha Gavya (MPG) on loose smut of wheat caused by Ustilago segetum var. tritici]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 162-164 (2009). Department of Plant Pathology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        Loose smut infected seeds of wheat variety WH 147 were soaked for 12 and 24 h in solution of Maha Pancha Gavya (MPG) at different concentrations before sowing in field to find out its efficacy in controlling the disease during crop seasons of 2002-03 and 2003-04. Soaking of seed in water and 5% MPG increased loose smut expression in wheat as compared to unsoaked control treatment. However, during 2002-03 season at 10 and 20% concentration of the MPG there was slight decrease in loose smut. Therefore, in next season the concentration of MPG was increased to 25, 50 and 100% and alongwith it cow urine at the same concentrations was also used for soaking the seed. At 50 and 100% concentrations, MPG drastically impaired seed germination and was ineffective in controlling the disease. Cow urine did not have any adverse effect on seed germination but increased expression of disease at all the concentrations. MPG at 10% concentration in integration with vitavax @ 1g/kg seed gave complete control of loose smut and even increased seed germination.
39.

Syed Zameer Hussain, H. R. Naik, A. H. Rather and Junaid Khan [Comparative evaluation of vertical maize cob sheller with traditional methods of maize shelling]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 165-167 (2009). Division of Post-harvest Technology SKUAST-K Shalimar, Srinagar-191 121, Kashmir (J. & K.), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        The vertical maize cob sheller, very useful to the farmers of hilly region, was evaluated for three varieties, namely, Local collection Kashmir, North decota pop-I and Composite Almora to study the different parameters like shelling capacity (kg/h), labour requirement (manhours), shelling efficiency (%), grain recovery (%) and grain damage (%). The results were compared with traditional methods of maize cob shelling (Beating by sticks and hand rubbing). When the shelling capacity, labour requirement and shelling efficiency were concerned, the vertical maize cob sheller was significantly superior over both the traditional methods. Further there was significant variation in grain recovery in all the three varieties, when shelling was done by sheller and by hand rubbing. However, the grain recovery of sheller was found to be significantly superior over beating method in Local collection Kashmir and North decota pop-I, but there was no siginificant variation in Composite Almora. Regarding grain damage there was significant variation among the three methods of shelling except when shelling was done by sheller and by hand rubbing in Local collection Kashmir. The overall study revealed that out of all the three varieties evaluated for shelling, the vertical maize cob sheller was found to be best suited for Local collection Kashmir variety.
40.

Syed zameer hussain, h. r. naik, a. h. rather and junaid khan [Comparative evaluation of horizontal maize cob sheller with traditional methods of maize shelling]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 168-170 (2009). Division of Post-harvest Technology
SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar-191 121, Kashmir (J & K), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        The horizontal maize cob sheller, very useful to the farmers of hilly region, was evaluated for three varieties, namely, Local collection Kashmir, North decota pop-I and Composite Almora to study the different parameters like shelling capacity (kg/h), labour requirement (manhours), shelling efficiency (%), grain recovery (%) and grain damage (%). The results were compared with traditional methods of maize cob shelling (Beating by sticks and hand rubbing). When the shelling capacity and labour requirement were concerned, the horizontal maize cob sheller was significantly superior over both the traditional methods. Regarding shelling efficiency, the difference between mechanical maize cob shelling (shelling by horizontal sheller) and shelling by hand rubbing was found to be non-significant for Local collection Kashmir and Composite Almora except in North decota pop-I. However, the shelling efficiency of sheller was found to be significantly superior over beating method of shelling in all the three varieties. In general, the grain recovery and grain damage showed significant variation in all the three methods of shelling. The overall study revealed that out of all the three varieties evaluated for shelling, the horizontal maize cob sheller was found to be best suited for North decota pop-I variety.
41.

Rashid Solagberu Adisa [Extension, production and socio-economic factors influencing farm output of rice producers in the flood plains of Kogi state, Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 171-178 (2009). Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

        To achieve food security and eradicate poverty among farmers require bridging the yield gap in production of food crops among Nigerian farmers. This study investigated the factors influencing the output of rice farmers in the flood plains (fadama) of Kogi state, North-Central Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 180 rice farmers participating in the Fadama Development Project in the State. Data were collected using structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression procedures were used in data analysis. It was found that the average yield of respondents (2.96 t/ha) and average farm size (4.06 ha), though higher than for the State, nevertheless characterized respondents as small scale farmers. At P=0.05, extension agents’ visits, number of small plots adoption trials, number of fortnightly trainings and adoption status were the significant extension factors that accounted for variation in rice output. Farm size, family labour, cost of input variables and land were the significant production factors, while age and educational level were the significant socio-economic factors. Adoption of improved rice production techniques and availability and affordability of production inputs, such as fertilizers and planting stock are imperative in order to increase rice output among participants in the Project.

42.

K. V. Ramachandra, V. L. Madhu Prasad and N. Narasimha [Correlates of adoption of nutrient management practices in potato crop by farmers]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 179-181 (2009). Sericulture College University of Agricultural Sciences (B), Chintamani-563 125, India.

 

ABSTRACT

        The present study was conducted in purposively selected Kolar district to find out the relationship of fanners characteristics with their adoption level on nutrient management practices in potato. The data were collected from 120 farmers with the help of structured pre-tested interview schedule. It was found that education, land holding, credit orientation, mass media exposure, extension contact, extension participation, innovation proneness and information source consulted had significant relationship with the adoption level of nutrient management practices in potato by farmers. Further, all the 15 characteristics included in the study contributed 69% of variability in knowledge in adoption level of farmers. There is a greater role for extension to provide technical guidance to farmers in order to enhance adoption of nutrient management practices in potato.
43.

K. V. Ramachandra, V. L. Madhu Prasad and N. Narasimha [Correlates of knowledge level of farmers on nutrient management practices in potato in Kolar district]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 182-184 (2009). Sericulture College University of Agricultural Sciences (B), Chintamani-563 125, India.

 

ABSTRACT

        The study was conducted in purposively selected Kolar district to find out the relationship of farmers’ characteristics with the knowledge level on nutrient management practices in potato. It was found that education, land holding, credit orientation, innovation proneness, source of information consulted and scientific orientation had significant relationship with the knowledge level of farmers on nutrient management practices in potato. Further, all the 15 characteristics included in the study contributed 68% of variability in knowledge level of farmers. Therefore, it calls for greater attention on the part of extension organizations to increase the knowledge of farmers on nutrient management practices in potato.
44.

G. N. KULKARNI, L. B. HUGAR AND V. B. KULIGOD [Consequences of irrigation induced land degradation on pattern of labour employment in Upper Krishna project–A case of saline and waterlogged soils]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 185-188 (2009). University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India.

 

ABSTRACT

        The study on problem of soil degradation due to waterlogging and soil salinity in Upper Krishna Project (UKP) of Karnataka state has created an on-farm unemployment due to poor productivity of soils as compared to normal soils. The labour utilization under paddy production has declined substantially by about 25.00% in kharif in waterlogged and severe saline soils, while the corresponding reduction was about 17.00 and 23.00% in rabi/summer season. However, decline in labour used in both the seasons was only marginal in case of moderate saline soils. The reduced on-farm employment opportunities due to soil degradation resulted in over dependence of farmers on off-farm labour employment for livelihood. Further, under worst production conditions, it has also caused out-migration of farm families to distant places in search of employment and livelihood. The pressure to work as agricultural labour to earn family living was relatively higher on female members as compared to their male counterparts. Inadequate farm size and poor productivity levels consequent to land degradation even with larger farm size led the farmers to migrate in large proportion when compared to farmers with normal soils. Therefore, it is suggested to take up land reclamation to create employment opportunities in irrigated command areas.
45.

S. B. Fakayode, A. Muhammad-Lawal, A. O. Omotesho and M. A. Solomon [Economic analysis of on-farm adaptive research trials for rice-maize intercrops in the Guinea Savannah : Case study of Kwara State, Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 10 (1) : 189-192 (2009). Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management P. M. B 1515, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

        Maize and rice are two important cereals that have been identified by the Food and Agricultural Organisation as crops capable of remedying food insecurity situations in the developing nations, especially in sub-saharan Africa. However, rice and sometimes maize are usually cultivated as sole crops. Though monocropping results in high outputs, the greatest disadvantage of sole cropping is that in instances of pest or disease outbreaks that attacks the sole crop, the farmer usually looses a significant part of his crops and sometimes even looses all his crops. The crop mixture/intercrop form of producing crops is therefore preferred by farmers, as it insures them against total crop losses. However, producing crops under different mixed cropping conditions will definitely have impact on resource use and consequently crops’ yields. This study therefore evaluated an on-farm adaptive research trial for the rice-maize intercrops in Kwara state, Nigeria. This was with a view to formulating a profitable intercrop farming practice for these crops. Data for the study were sourced from four treatments of maize-rice intercrops in each of the four ecological zones (A-D) of the Kwara state Agricultural Development Project (KWADP). The four maize-rice treatments were Faro 43 rice-maize at 90 x 80 cm and one plant/stand seed rate as the control (T1), Faro 43 rice-maize at 90 x 40 cm and one plant/stand seed rate (T2), Faro 43 rice-maize at 90 x 50 cm and two plants/stand seed rate (T3) and Faro 43 rice-maize at 90 x 40 cm and two plants/stand seed rate (T4). The control treatment is the prevalent rice-maize intercrop practice in the study area. The partial budget and marginal rate of return analyses were used in determining the profitability of each treatment. The partial budget result indicated that treatment 3 (T3) has the highest average net benefit within and across the KWADP ecological zones. Also the marginal rate of returns showed that treatments 3 has the highest marginal rate of return within and across the zones. The study therefore recommends treatment 3 to farmers in the savannah zones of Nigeria.

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