CR ABSTRACT
Volume 40, Number 1, 2 & 3 (July, September & November 2010)

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
md@cropresearch.org

1. A. SATHISH, A. Y. HUGAR, NAGARAJA KUSAGUR, H. CHANDRAPPA AND H. G. SANNATHIMMAPPA [Effect of integrated use of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients on yield, nutrient uptake response and nutrient use efficiency of rice-maize cropping system]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 1-6 (2010). Agricultural Research Station, Kathalagere, Davanagere District University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru (Karnataka), India.

Abstract

The effect of integrated use of inorganic fertilizer and organic sources of nutrients on yield, nutrient uptake response and nutrient use efficiency of rice-maize cropping system on an Alfisol was studied in long term field experiment conducted with various treatment combinations including FYM, green manure and paddy straw in kharif followed by only inorganic fertilizers in summer. The treatment which received 25% N through paddy straw and 75% NPK through inorganic fertilizer recorded higher yield, nutrient uptake response and nutrient use efficiency in rice. The treatment which received 50% N through FYM and 50% NPK through inorganic fertilizer in kharif followed by 100% NPK through inorganic fertilizers showed higher yield, nutrient uptake response and nutrient use efficiency in maize. Hence, minimum of 25-50% N should be supplied through organic sources to derive maximum benefit depending on the availability of resources.



2. P. Anapurnamma, A. Pratap Kumar Reddy, G. S. Madhu Bindu and M. Sreenivasa Raju [Evaluation of the performance of rice fallow maize under zero-tillage conditions in comparison to conventional planting]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 7-11 (2010). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India.

Abstract

Initial and final plant stand of maize was higher under zero tillage conditions than in conventional planting. Random sowing with appropriate weed control measures under zero tillage conditions recorded higher initial and final plant stand. Growth and yield parameters viz., plant height, LAI, dry matter accumulation and cob weight at different observational periods were positively favoured by conventional planting and line sown zero till integrated weed control treatment which being comparable had produced higher grain yields than the other treatments. On the other hand, net returns and benefit : cost ratio were higher in line sown zero till integrated weed control treatment compared to conventional planting.



3. THAKAR SINGH, TARANVIR PAL SINGH AND RAJIV SIKKA [Effect of date of transplanting, plant population and nitrogen levels on nitrogen uptake and nutrient status of soil in basmati rice]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 12-15 (2010). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2003 to evaluate the effect of date of transplanting, plant population and nitrogen level on fertility status and nitrogen uptake in basmati rice. Nitrogen uptake in different plant parts was not significantly influenced by date of transplanting. The plant population showed a significant and progressive increase in nitrogen uptake with increase in plant population only at the maximum tillering stage, where plant population of 44 hills/m2 showed maximum N uptake (27.1 kg/ha) followed by 33 hills/m2 (22.0 kg/ha) and 25 hills/m2 (18.1 kg/ha). Similarly, a progressive increase in nitrogen uptake was observed with each incremental level of nitrogen at all the growth stages. Total nitrogen uptake of 24.7, 39.8, 60.8 and 85.1 kg/ha was observed at harvest of basmati rice with the application of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg N/ha, respectively. Date of transplanting and plant population did not influence the organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the soil. Application of nitrogen upto 60 kg/ha to basmati rice significantly increased the OC and P content of the soil, but N and K content increased significantly only upto 40 kg/ha. After harvesting of basmati rice, the organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the soil were decreased as compared to their initial values.



4. A. S. YADAV, JAIDEV, HARDEV RAM and M. K. UPADHYAY [Effect of nitrogen levels and plant geometry on growth, yield and root characteristics of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa)]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 16-19 (2010). Department of Agronomy Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj-224 229, Faizabad (U. P.), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during the rainy seasons of 2006 and 2007 to study the effect of nitrogen levels and plant geometry on growth and yield of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Application of 200 kg N/ha significantly increased all the growth characters viz., dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and yield attributes. Application of 200 kg N/ha recorded significantly higher (7.72 t/ha) grain yield over 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha but at par with 150 kg N/ha in case of straw yield. Closer plant geometry of 15 × 10 cm proved to be superior to wider plant geometry (20 × 15, 15 × 15 and 20 × 10 cm) in respect of growth characters, yields, while wider plant spacing (20 × 15 cm) recorded higher root volume and dry weight during both the years.



5. P. Thimmegowda, K. N. Kalyana Murthy, P. S. Fathima and A. Vidya [Studies on chemical weed control in aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 20-24 (2010). Department of Agronomy Agriculture College, V. C. Farm, Mandya (Karnataka), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2005 at Agriculture College, V. C. Farm, Mandya to evaluate the efficacy of some pre-emergence herbicides in aerobic rice. The treatments comprised butachlor (0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 kg a. i./ha), pyrazosulfuron ethyl (20, 25 and 30 g a. i./ha), clomozone+2, 4-DEE (0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 l/ha) and two intercultivations and hand weeding at 20 and 45 DAS alongwith weedy check. The field was infested with Digitaria sanguinalis, Cynodon dactylon, Aegeratum conyzoids, Commelina benghalensis, Celosia argentia and Cyperus rotundus. The application of herbicides reduced the weed population and weed dry matter production and increased the grain yield significantly. Among herbicides, pyrazosulfuron ethyl @ 30 g a. i./ha has shown best results in reducing weed population and weed dry matter specially sedges with an efficiency of 90.86% and recorded higher grain yield (5.0 t/ha) and was comparable with hand weeding at 20 and 45 DAS. The maximum net returns (Rs. 21019/ha) and benefit : cost ratio (2.15) were recorded with pyrazosulfuron ethyl @ 30 g a. i./ha.



6. G. SRIDEVI, B. RAJKANNAN AND U. SURENDRAN [Effect of zinc enriched fym and cowdung on yield of rice (ADT-45)]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 25-28 (2010). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

Field experiment was conducted on non-calcareous, zinc deficient clay loam soil (Typic Ustopept). Rice (variety ADT-45) was the test crop to study the effect of zinc-enriched organic manures. The treatments were NPK alone, NPK+200 kg FYM without enrichment, NPK+200 kg FYM enriched with different levels of Zn (1.25, 2.50 and 5.0 kg Zn/ha), NPK+cow dung without enrichment and NPK+200 kg cow dung enriched with different levels of Zn. The results of the field experiment revealed that recommended dose of NPK+200 kg FYM enriched with 5.0 kg zinc increased the grain (5430 kg/ha) and straw (7075 kg/ha) yields which was due to increased availability of zinc. Uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and zinc uniform trend with the highest uptake in the plots receiving recommended fertilizers alongwith 200 kg of FYM or cow dung enriched with 2.5 or 5.0 kg Zn when compared to control.



7. Ch. Sreenivas* and G. Narayanasamy [Comparative performance of eight sources of enriched phosphocompost and inorganic fertilizer application on phosphorus nutrition of wheat crop]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 29-34 (2010). Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : csvasu@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Phosphocomposts were prepared with Udaipur rock phosphate (P enrichment @ 2 and 4%) in combination with earth worm, Eisenia fetida (with and without) and phosphorus solubilising microorganisms, Aspergillus awamori (with and without) using rice straw as substrate. These eight composts were applied in combination with DAP at three levels (2/3rd P from DAP and 1/3rd P from composts, 1/3rd P from DAP and 2/3rd P from composts and 3/3rd P from composts) and applied at two levels of P (25 and 50 mg P/kg soil) to wheat crop to study the direct effect. Composts prepared with inoculation of PSM and earthworm were better than composts prepared without these biological agents. Phosphocomposts were comparatively less efficient than DAP in meeting the P demand of wheat crop, their larger residual value narrowed down the gap between these two.



8. R. K. SARKAR AND R. B. MALLICK [Effect of planting geometry, nitrogen and phosphorus application on forage yield of oat (Avena sativa)]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 35-39 (2010). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Science Calcutta University, Kolkata-700 019 (West Bengal), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive winter seasons of 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Baruipur, West Bengal. Results revealed that planting geometry of 25 × 12 cm produced higher green forage and dry matter and crude protein yield and recorded higher N and P content in oat and permitted their better uptake over geometries of 30 × 10 cm and 20 × 15 cm. Application of 120 kg N and 60 kg P2O5/ha increased forage yields, N and P content and their uptake. Agronomic and physiological efficiency of N and P and their apparent recovery showed a quadratic response upto 60 kg N and 30 kg P2O5/ha.



9. Jamal Y. Ayad*, Hani Saoub and Ruba Ajjour1 [Influence of salinity and nitrogen application on dry matter and ion accumulation in Kochia scoparia L. Schrader]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 40-52 (2010). Department of Horticulture and Crop Science Faculty of Agriculture University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan *(e-mail : ayadj@ju.edu.jo)

Abstract

Kochia scoparia L. is a promising salt tolerant forage crop that could be used under saline conditions. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted at the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan during the period of 23 March 2005 to 16 June 2005 and from 20 March 2006 to 20 June 2006. Six NaCl salt treatments 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 mM and four nitrogen levels (0, 100, 200, 300 kg N/ha) were imposed in the first experiment to study their effect on shoot growth, salinity tolerance and ion accumulation. Similar salt concentrations using NaCl-CaCl2, 1 : 1 ratio were imposed in a half-strength Hoagland solution to study shoot and root growth and their interactions with ion accumulation in the second experiment. Kochia dry matter production and salinity tolerance were depressed with increasing salinity levels. The application of N fertilizer enhanced plant growth and nutrient uptake compared with the non-treated control. The uptake of nutrient was also affected by the salinity and N fertilizer applied. Calcium, K and Na uptake of shoot increased with increasing level of salinity irrespective of fertilizer level. Plant shoot and root dry weight were significantly inhibited at 300 mM NaCl and NaCl-CaCl2 where dry weight reduced below 50% of that in the control. The Na and Cl content in both shootss and roots, increased in response to salinity. Na accumulation was similar in both shoots and roots, while Cl and Ca were much higher in shoots than in roots. Both Na and Cl were negatively correlated to salinity tolerance and the impact of Na was higher than that of Cl. Moreover, K : Na ratio was correlated positively to salinity tolerance and this effect was enhanced by N application. The capacity of Kochia to maintain a reasonable growth under salinity and K : Na ratio above one and ion accumulation in shoot and root could implicate better tolerance to adverse salinity stress.



10. SAMSUL HAQUE, ASOK SAHA, SUBHENDU BANDYOPADHYAY and PARTHA SARATHI PATRA [Performance of some maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars as affected by integrated nutrient management in terai region of West Bengal]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 53-58 (2010). Department of Agronomy Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari-736 165, Cooch Behar (West Bengal), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of two consecutive years 2007 and 2008 to study the performance of some maize cultivars as affected by integrated nutrient management in terai region of West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The results obtained from the experiment showed that M2 (75% recommended dose of fertilizer+vermicompost @ 2 t/ha) recorded significantly highest values of all the yield parameters and grain yield (43.71 q/ha). In both the years, nutrient uptake was recorded to be highest under M2 (75% recommended dose of fertilizer+vermicompost @ 2 t/ha). The yield attributes viz., number of effective cobs/plant, cob length, cob girth, kernel rows/cob, number of kernels/row, number of kernels/cob and 100-grain weight were superior in maize cultivars in order of VL-88 > Vivek-5 > Vivek-4 > Vivek-17 > HIM-129 > Vivek-15 > Vivek-9 > Vivek-11 compared to Pundibari local. Among the manure levels, M2 fetched higher B : C ratio and among the cultivars VL-88 recorded higher B : C ratio.



11. H. A. ESECHIE* AND I. T. AL-MAAMARI [Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars to irrigation water salinity in Oman]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 59-65 (2010). Department of Crop Sciences Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 34, Al Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman *(e-mail : humes@squ.edu.om)

Abstract

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in 2004-05 to investigate the response of three chickpea cultivars, Bahla, Yanqul and Batini, to irrigation water salinity in Oman. Germination studies were carried out in the laboratory while the growth and performance of the cultivars were investigated in the field. The salinity treatments (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS/m) were prepared by diluting sea water with tap water to the desired salt concentration. Tap water (0.6 dS/m) served as control. There was a significant reduction in mean germination percentage in each cultivar with increased level of salinity. At the germination stage, the order of tolerance was Bahla>Batini>Yanqul. Plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of seeds per plant and seed test weights were also adversely affected by salinity and generally, the order of tolerance among the chickpea cultivars was Batini > Bahla > Yanqul. Yanqul, the least tolerant cultivar accumulated the highest leaf proline concentration at all salinity levels, suggesting that proline accumulation may be associated with sensitivity to salinity stress in chickpea.



12. A. M. Al-Tawaha*, M. Turk, K. Hameed, T. Assaf, R. Tahhan and A. F. Al-Jamali [Effects of application of olive mill by-products on lentil yield and their symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi under arid conditions]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 66-75 (2010). Department of Biological Sciences Al Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma’an, P. O. Box 20, Jordan *(e-mail : abdel.al-tawaha@elf.mcgill.ca; abdeltawaha74@gmail.com)

 

Abstract

Lentil is an important protein source for the people in countries of West and South Asia and North Africa. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of soil amendment with olive mill by-products (Jift) on growth of lentil and their symbiosis with VA fungi. A split plot design with three replications was used, in which soil treatments (methyl bromide fumigated, fungicide and untreated control) were assigned to main plots and soil-Jift mixtures (Jift : Soil; 0 : 10, 1 : 9, 2 : 8, 3 : 7 and 4 : 6) to sub-plots. The higher seed yield was observed for plants grown in plots treated with fungicide or left as untreated control. When Jift was considered as main factor, seed yield was found to be increased as Jift level was increased in soil mixtures. However, the seed yield (1668 kg/ha), produced by plants grown in plots containing Jift at the rate of 3 : 7 was significantly lower than that produced by plants grown under soil mixtures containing Jift at the rate of 2 : 8 (1742 kg/ha). Number of VA spores was increased significantly as Jift level was increased in soil mixtures treated with methyl bromide or left as untreated control. Phosphorus contents per plant were increased alongwith Jift addition upto the rate of 2 : 8 in soil mixtures.



13. M. A. Hussaini and A. Lado [Influence of weed control methods on yield and yield components of irrigated and rainfed cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 76-82 (2010). Department of Agronomy Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted during dry and rainy seasons of 2008 at teaching and research farm of Bayero University, Kano to study the effect of various weed managements on yield and yield components of cowpea. The experiments consisted of 15 treatments comprising 13 herbicide combinations with or without supplementary hoe weeding, two-hoe weeded and weedy check arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental sites were largely dominated by broad- leaved weed species. Higher number of pods per plant, pod, grain and haulm yields per hectare were obtained by two-hoe weeded plots and pre-emergence application of atrazine and alachlor at 0.8 kg a. i./ha+diuron at 0.8 kg a. i./ha as well as atrazine and alachlor at 1.0 kg a. i./ha+diuron at 0.8 kg a. i./ha each with supplementary hoe weeding in both the seasons (P£0.05). Weedy check plots significantly (P£0.05) produced the highest weed dry matter, lowest number of pods per plant, and the least yields of pod, grain and haulms/ha. Grain yield was found to be significantly and positively correlated with number of pods per plant and pod yield/ha. The associations of weed dry weight and yield components were negative in both the seasons.



14. Kiran KUMARI* and iNAYAT kHAN [Physico-chemical analysis of distillery effluent collected from six different distilleries operating in Haryana]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 83-87 (2010). Division of Soil & Crop Management Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : kkhokar@yahoo.in)

Abstract

Samples of effluents from distilleries located at Hisar, Panipat, Yamuna Nagar, Hathin, Jhari and Samalkha in the state of Haryana were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total solids, total dissolved solids, volatile solids, ash content, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), organic carbon, fluorine, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. The effluents were very acidic (pH 3.7- 4.1) and had very high BOD (40-52 g/l), COD (86-105 g/l) and EC (22-29 dS/m). Total solids, total dissolved solids and volatile solids varied from 99-129, 69-106 and 68-98 g/l, respectively. Organic carbon content of the effluent ranged from 12.1-16.4%; nitrogen and potassium varied from 980-1338 and 7375-12187 mg/l, respectively. Iron, zinc, copper and manganese content in the effluents ranged from 6.1-12.7, 0.6-1.3, 0.16-0.27 and 0.22-0.42 mg/l. The heavy metals and fluoride content in the effluent were almost negligible.



15. Mushtaq A. Beigh*, M. A. Mir and Fauzia Shafi [Studies to evaluate the effect of post-harvest application of lac based wax coating formulations (SHOO3) and storage conditions on the storage life of pear cv. William pear]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 88-93 (2010). Division of Post-Harvest Technology Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agril. Science & Technology, Shalimar, Srinagar (J & K), India *(e-mail : beighmushtaq@yahoo.com)

Abstract

William pear fruits of uniform size harvested at commercial maturity stage were washed with tap water and treated with lac-based wax coating formulation (SHOO3) at different concentrations viz. 0, 5, 10 and 20% by dip method. Fruits were dried with ambient air stream, packed in CFB boxes and stored under ambient (0C) and refrigerated (0-20C) conditions. For monitoring quality changes, the pears were evaluated at regular intervals. Results revealed that maximum quality attributes (fruit firmness, juice yield, TSS, total titrable acidity, vitamin C, etc.) were retained effectively under refrigerated conditions than under ambient storage. Among different wax coating formulations, maximum quality attributes were retained by 20% followed by 10 and 5% wax concentrations compared to control in both the storage conditions. However, on sensory evaluation basis, 10% wax concentration was found to be ideal because coating of pears with 20% wax affected the overall appearance of the fruits due to more thickness of wax coating material.



16. CHANDRAPPA, A. P. MALLIKARJUNA GOWDA, M. K. HONNA BYRAIAH AND J. V. NARAYANA GOWDA [Effect of bio-fertilizers on vegetative characters of anthurium cv. Carmen]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 94-96 (2010). Department of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

Combined application of Azospirillum alongwith the recommended dose of NPK recorded maximum plant height (51.33 cm), number of leaves (17.67) and suckers per plant (5.89) compared to the control.


17. CHANDRAPPA, A. P. MALLIKARJUNA GOWDA, M. K. HONNA BYRAIAH AND J. V. NARAYANA GOWDA [Effect of bio-fertilizers on flower characters of anthurium cv. Carmen]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 97-100 (2010). Department of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

Plants supplied with Azospirillum in combination with recommended dose of NPK recorded maximum number of flowers (12.11) which were nearly one and half times than the control (7.78). Also application of Azospirillum with recommended NPK produced significantly maximum length of stalk (21.51 cm) as compared to control (20.07 cm). But stalk girth (2.94 mm) was maximum in the treatment combination of NPK+Azotobacter and least stalk girth was recorded in control (2.39 mm). The plants supplied with recommended dose of NK+50% P+PSB +Azospirillum recorded maximum spathe size (9.63 cm2) and lesser spathe size was recorded in control (7.41 cm2).



18. P. KAVITHA, K. JEEVAN RAO AND A. RAVI CHANDRA REDDY [Direct and residual effects of organic manures on yield, quality of edible parts and economics in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)-cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) cropping sequence*]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 101-108 (2010). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendra Nagar-500 030, Hyderabad (A. P.), India

Abstract

Field experiment was conducted at college farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad in kharif and rabi seasons of 2003-04 to study the direct and residual effect of sewage sludge, urban compost and FYM (@ 0, 20 and 40 t/ha) alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers on yield, quality of edible parts (ascorbic acid, protein content, TSS of tomato fruit/cabbage head and sulphur content of cabbage head at harvest) and economics in tomato-cabbage cropping sequence. Yield and quality parameters were increased significantly with the increasing fertility levels from 0 to 100% RDF. Direct and residual effect of organic manures significantly increased the yield and quality of edible parts compared to no manure application. The highest yield and quality of edible parts were received in the treatment sewage sludge applied @ 40 t/ha followed by 20 t/ha. In combined treatments, sewage sludge @ 40 t/ha alongwith 100% RDF and sewage sludge @ 40 t/ha alongwith 75% RDF were equally effective in increasing the yield and quality of edible parts in both the crops. The highest B : C ratio was obtained in sewage sludge @ 40 t/ha with 75% RDF (3.88).

 

19. A. J. Wani, T. Mubarak And J. A. Bhat [Effect of integrated nutrient management on curd yield, quality and nutrient uptake of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) cv. Snowball-16 under temperate Kashmir conditions]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 109-112 (2010). Division of Olericulture S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kashmir-192 233 (J & K), India

Abstract

An experiment was conducted during rabi 2004-05 to evaluate the best combination of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients for maximizing yield and improving quality of cauliflower cv. Snowball-16. Combined application of 50% recommended dose of NPK and poultry manure @ 3 t/ha recorded significantly higher curd yield (325.1 q/ha ) followed by combined application of 50% recommended dose of NPK and mixture of half dose of FYM, poultry manure, sheep manure and pea straw. Curd quality and nutrient uptake also improved with the same treatments. Highest net returns (Rs. 178096/ha) and benefit : cost ratio (3.59) were recorded for the treatment including combined use of 50% recommended dose of NPK and poultry manure @ 3 t/ha.



20. T. R. NANDAL AND MANJINDER KAUR BEDI [Integrated nutrient management studies in onion (Allium cepa L.) under low hills sub-tropical conditions of Himachal Pradesh]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 113-116 (2010). CSK HPKV Hill Agriculture Research and Extension Centre, Dhaulakuan, Sirmaur-173 001 (H. P.), India

Abstract

Integrated nutrient management study in onion (Allium cepa L.) var. N-53 was carried out at CSK HPKV, HAREC, Dhaulakuan in the years 2007 and 2008. In all, there were eight treatments consisting of FYM+recommended fertilizers, vermi-compost+recommended fertilizer, recommended FYM, recommended vermicompost, recommended fertilizers, FYM+50% NPK of recommended, vermicompost+50% NPK of recommended and control where neither FYM nor fertilizer was applied. Highest mean yield of two years (108.1 q/ha) was recorded with vermicompost+fertilizers (recommended) and the mean splitting and bolting in onion bulbs were recorded 1.2% and 2.6, respectively, in recommended vermicompost. As far as plant growth parameters are concerned, average plant height and average number of leaves per plant were recorded maximum with vermicompost+fertilizers (recommended) and the plant stand at harvest was recorded maximum with FYM+fertilizers (recommended).



21. D. Padmaja, K. Radhika, L. V. Subba Rao and V. Padma [Studies on genetic divergence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 117-121 (2010). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding
Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

Abstract

The success of any breeding programme depends upon the selection of suitable parents for developing elite recombinants. Genetic divergence analysis of 150 genotypes of rice including five check varieties Jaya, Mandya vijaya, Prasanna, Rasi and Vasumathi using Mahalanobis D2 statistics revealed the existence of considerable diversity among the genotypes. On the basis of D2 values, the genotypes were categorized into 13 clusters. Cluster XI was the largest consisting of 28 genotypes, while cluster I contained only two genotypes. A wide range of variation was observed in cluster means for all the 11 quantitative characters studied. Maximum intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster IX. Cluster I showed maximum inter-cluster distance with cluster IX indicating that the genotypes from these clusters may be used as potential donors in hybridization programme to obtain desirable recombinants. Grains per panicle and spikelet fertility were the major characters contributing towards divergence among the genotypes.



22. h. p. thanki, m. s. pithia and v. j. bhatiya [Genetic parameters, character association and path analysis in pigeonpea]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 122-125 (2010). Depatment of Agricultural Botany Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India

Abstract

A study conducted with 28 genotypes of pigeonpea indicated that seed yield per plant was positively associated with number of pods per plant and harvest index. These characters had medium to high heritability with good genetic advance. A weightage in the sequence of number of pods per plant, 100-seed weight and harvest index should be given in selecting high yielding genotypes as indicated by path analysis.



23. a. thanga hemavathy and k. balaji [Induction of mutation in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] through physical mutagen]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 126-128 (2010). Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

The present investigation was carried out at the Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu during 2005. To induce mutation in three varieties of blackgram viz., ADT 3, ADT 5 and APK 1 by gamma irradiation and to study different macro mutants. The effect of various doses (40 kR, 50 kR, 60 kR, 70 kR and 80 kR) of gamma rays on the frequency and spectrum of macro mutants and the response of three varieties to such irradiation dose was observed. The results indicated that in M2 generation a total of 35 leaf mutants and 56 macro mutants were observed in all the three varieties. With respect to doses 40 kR had all type of leaf mutants. Among the varieties, APK 1 had more number of macro mutants and the variety ADT 5 had less number of macro mutants.



24. S. MOHAN KUMAR, CHANNAKRISHNAIH, S. MUNISWAMY AND G. GIRISH [Heterosis for yield and yield attributing characters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids*]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 129-131 (2010). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out with 56 F1 hybrids generated from line x tester design involving eight cytoplasmic male sterile and seven restorer lines in sunflower. Alongwith their combining ability, extent of standard heterosis were analyzed over the check KBSH-1 for five matric characters. Results indicated that the cross combination CMS M1A x RHA 23 showed highest heterosis for seed yield and oil yield followed by CMS 17A x RHA 23. The combinations of CMS 852A x RHA 278 and CMS 852A x RHA 378 were best maturing hybrids which showed highest negative heterosis for maturity over KBSH-1. The hybrid from the cross CMS 17A x RHA 378 manifested highest heterosis for test weight. CMS M1A x RHA 23 showed significant positive heterosis for head diameter. Among the 56 F1 hybrids studied, the cross combination of CMS 1A x RHA 23 and CMS 17A x RHA 23 exhibited positive heterosis for most of the characters with highest heterosis for seed and oil yield compared to check KBSH-1.



25. M. GIRIJA RANI, M. SREEKANTH AND S. RAMAKRISHNA RAO [Genetic variability in morphological and quantitative characters in niger (Guizotia abyssinica) germplasm]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 132-134 (2010). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Chintapalle-531 111, Vishakhapatnam District (A. P.), India

Abstract

Variability in niger was studied in 36 genotypes for morphological characters like capitulum size, leaf colour, lodging tendency and seed colour, quantitative characters viz., days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, days to maturity and seed yield per plant as per standard evaluation system for niger by NBPGR. The germplasm lines were grouped based on capitulum size into small (19), medium (17); leaf colour into green (22), light green (14), lodging tendency into lodging (21), non- lodging (15); and seed colour into brown (5), dark brown (8) and black colour (23). High genotypic coefficient of variation for seed yield per plant (28.21), moderate variability in days to 50% flowering (10.59) and plant height (11.79) was observed among the germplasm studied. Plant height expressed high heritability (95.4) coupled with high expected genetic advance (22.8) and days to 50% flowering exhibited high heritability (95.7) with moderate expected genetic advance (10.8) indicating additive gene action for these characters may be useful in further population improvement of niger.



26. P. Senthil Kumar and V. Venkatesh [Studies on combining ability in egg plant]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 135-137 (2010). Department of Agricultural Botany Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, India

Abstract

The present investigation was conducted during June 2006 to May 2007 at Annamalai University, India. The parent Mullukathari of egg plant showed highly significant gca effect for yield per plant and number of fruits per plant. The parent Putheri was found to be the best signifcant gca effect for fruit length, number of branches per plant and days to first flower. Kunnam was the next best parent for yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and fruit length. High gca effect was observed in the cross Putheri/Annamalai for economically important characters like yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and fruit girth. However, the same cross recorded negative sca effect for days to first flower. Parents with high gca were involved in Putheri/Annamalai cross showing that additive × additive interactions would be responsible for high gca in the cross. Hence, in crosses involving parents with high gca, high mean expression can be used widely in pedigree breeding.



27. M. Velmurugan*, K. Rajamani, P. Paramaguru, R. Gnanam, J. R. Kannan Bapu and P. Hemalatha [Impact of mutagenesis on physiological and biochemical parameters of coleus (Coleus forskohlii Briq.)]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 138-145 (2010). Horticultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : hortmrvelu@yahoo.com)

Abstract

The investigation on induced mutagenesis on physiological and biochemical parameters of coleus was carried out at Medicinal Plant Unit, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore using the terminal cuttings of coleus ecotype ‘Garmai’. The results revealed that the maximum crop growth rate (5.04 g/m2/day) was observed in 0.50% EMS. While the minimum crop growth rate (3.10 g/m2/day) was recorded at higher doses of mutagen (3.50 kR gamma rays+1.50% EMS). The maximum (28.50) and minimum (26.09) harvest index was recorded in 2.50 kR gamma rays+1.00% EMS and 3.50 kR gamma rays, respectively. The mean total dry matter production of different mutagenic treatments reduced progressively from the control (181.89 g) to (3.50 kR gamma rays+1.50% EMS (97.31 g). The mean total carbohydrate content ranged from 12.08 mg glucose/g material (3.50 kR gamma rays+1.00% EMS) to 27.90 mg glucose/g material (control). The mean soluble protein content ranged from 5.96 mg albumin equivalent to soluble protein/g (3.50 kR gamma rays+1.50% EMS) to 8.90 mg albumin equivalent to soluble protein/g (control). The mutagenic treatments recorded reduced mean values over control for IAA oxidase activity in leaves. The decrease in mean values was consistent at higher doses of mutagen. The mean values for peroxidase activity decreased with an increasing dose of mutagens except in 0.50% EMS (3.91 change in OD at 430 nm/min/g). All theses parameters contribute the low fresh tuber yield with consecutive increase in mutagenic doses.



28. JOYDIP MANDAL, V. K. DHANGRAH AND JAYANT S. BHAT [Studies on genetic variability and trait interrelationships among morphological and phonological characters in vegetable amaranth]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 146-150 (2010). Department of Crop Improvement, Horticulture and Agricultural Botany (CIHAB) Institute of Agriculture Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan-731 236 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : joydip_hort@rediffmail.com)

Abstract

The genetic and correlation studies on 22 genotypes of vegetable amaranth were conducted at the Horticulture Farm of Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan in RCBD with three replications during spring-summer season of 2007. The experimental site is under sub-humid, sub-tropical and lateritic belt of West Bengal. Observations on days to marketable maturity, plant height, stem girth, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, dry weight (leaf and stem), leaf : stem ratio, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and green yield were recorded. The ANOVA revealed significant differences among genotypes implying the presence of genetic variability in the experimental material for studied traits. High to moderate estimates (>30%) of coefficients of variation (GCV and PCV), high (>50%) heritability (broad sense) and high to moderate (>35%) genetic advance for majority of the traits indicated the possibility of improvement in morphological and phonological traits through selection. The correlation between green yield and its components such as plant height, stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf and stem dry weights was significant and positive indicating the possibility of indirect selection and realizing correlated response. However, days to marketable maturity had negative correlation with plant height, stem dry weight and chlorophyll contents.



29. A. G. waghmare, R. T. Bhowate and V. U. Raut [Effect of phosphorus and potassium levels on growth parameters of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk)]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 151-156 (2010). Post Graduate Institute Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India

Abstract

The present investigation was carried out during rabi 2005 at Nagarjun Medicinal Plants Garden, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. There were four levels of phosphorus viz., 0 kg (P0), 15 kg (P1), 30 kg (P2) and 45 kg (P3) P2O5/ha and four levels of potassium viz., 0 kg (K0), 15 kg (K1), 30 kg (K2) and 45 kg (K3) K2O/ha, tried in split plot design with three replications. The experimental soil was slightly calcareous, alkaline in reaction and clayey in texture, sufficient in available potassium and low in organic carbon, available nitrogen and phosphorus. The experimental findings revealed that the growth parameters like dry matter accumulation, number of tillers, number of spikes and spike length per plant were recorded significantly highest due to the application of 30 kg P2O5/ha and 15 kg K2O/ha.



30. ASHISH VALA, R. S. FOUGAT and ROSHNI SAMARTH [Morphological characterization for male sterility in blond psyllium]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 157-160 (2010). Department of Agricultural Botany Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India

Abstract

For morphological causes of male sterility, eight agronomically important traits were studied which showed presence of some amount of variability among three sex morphotypes in populations of different germplasm lines of Isabgol. Among the traits studied, number of spikes per plant, number of flowers, seed size and seed yield were desirable traits which could be helpful for morphological characterization of three sex morphotypes in P. ovata.



31. Maher M. Al-Dabbas*, Rafat Ahmad, Radwan Y. Ajo, Khaled Abulaila, Muhanad Akash and Khalid Al-Ismail [Chemical composition and oil components in seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk) Fiori]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 161-167 (2010). Department of Nutrition and Food Technology University of Jordan, Amman-11942, Jordan *(e-mail : m.aldabbas@ju.edu.jo)

Abstract

The proximate, amino acids and mineral composition of Moringa peregrina seeds and the seeds oil sterols and fatty acids composition were investigated. The results showed that the seeds contained 24.1% crude protein, 53.5% fat, 2.6% ash and 2.4% moisture. The mineral analysis indicated high potassium (630.2 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (620.5 mg/100 g) content. Moringa protein was rich in arginine (15.3%), leucine (9%), glycine (8.4%) and proline (8.2%), while essential amino acids comprised approximately 56% of the moringa protein which was higher than the reference value (40%) recommended by FAO/WHO. The first limiting amino acid in moringa was lysine and the second was tryptophan, whereas the contents of other EAAs were higher than the reference values recommended by FAO/WHO. The seeds oil was found to contain high level of unsaturated fatty acids (83.5%) and in particular oleic acid (74.8%). palmitic (8.9%), stearic (3.1%) and behenic (2.6%) acids were found to be the predominant saturated fatty acids. The seeds oil was also found to contain high levels of b-sitosterol (28.3%), stigmasterol (24.54%), campesterol (23.7%) and D-5-avenasterol (16.1%). Results suggest that M. peregrina seeds have a great potential as a food or feed due to its high content of oil, protein, amino acids, sterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

 

32. S. Padmapriya, K. Kumanan and K. Rajamani [Studies on effect of organic amendments and bio-stimulants on morphology, yield and quality of Gymnema sylvestre]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 168-173 (2010). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Horticultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : spadmapriyaa@yahoo.co.in)

Abstract

The experiment on effect of organic amendments and growth promoters on morphology and yield of Gymnema was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of different combinations of basal application of organic amendments and the sub-plots with the foliar spray of biostimulants viz., humic acid, panchagavya and Manchurian mushroom. The results revealed that the treatment combination M1S4 i. e. FYM (25 t/ha) + recommended dose of fertilizer (90 : 45 : 35 kg/ha of NPK/ha) combined with foliar spraying of panchagavya and Manchurian mushroom extract each @ 3% and humic acid @ 0.3% recorded highest plant height (227.53, 286.47, 300.1 and 334.54 cm), number of leaves (62.0, 70.0, 82.0 and 95.0), number of branches (36.0, 48.0, 55.0 and 58.0), leaf area (12.60, 15.52, 17.50 and 18.92 cm2), fresh biomass (2.55, 3.22, 3.88 and 4.10 kg/plant) and dry biomass (0.638, 0.782, 0.890 and 0.913 kg/plant) at 180, 240, 300 and 360 days after transplanting, respectively. Regarding the quality parameters, the treatment combination M6S4 [FYM (25 t/ha)+Vermicompost (5 t/ha)+Neem cake (250 kg) combined with foliar spraying of panchagavya and Manchurian mushroom extract each @ 3% and humic acid @ 0.3%] registered the highest gymnemic acid content of 485.74 mg/100 g dry weight.


33. Maher J. Tadros*, Ahmad M. Alqudah and Yousef S. Arabiat [Comparative study between Cupressus sempervirens and Cupressus arizonica in seed germination and seedling vigour]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 174-181 (2010). Department of Natural Resources and Environment Jordan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan *(e-mail : mtadros@just.edu.jo)

 

Abstract

Mediterranean cypress is the most important and widespread species used in many agricultural purposes and plays fundamental ecological, economical and ornamental roles in the Mediterranean region. The Cupressus species has important characteristics of marked drought hardiness. The main objective of the present study was to investigate primarily seed germination and early growth performance of C. sempervirens and C. arizonica. The failure of seeds to germinate causes low germination percentage and low seedling production. The seeds were collected from three different locations in Jordan : Amman, Shobak and Tafileh. The overall germination percentage was in the range of 30 to 48%. C. arizonica was found only in Tafileh and had higher germination percentage (48%) and germination rate index (GRI) compared to Amman and Shobak. In Shobak location, the germination percentage was 38 and 30 in both C. sempervirens and C. arizonica, respectively, that was not significantly different compared to 38 and 38% in both the species, respectively, in Amman. The site conditions such as elevation, rainfall and temperature did not show an effect on the germination process such as Amman and Shobak almost have similar rainfall but different elevation. The differences in rainfall and elevation affect the seedling and root growth. In Shobak, C. sempervirens root growth was significantly higher than the other species. While there were no significant differences in the seedling growth. It is well noticed that the shoot : root length ratio was significantly higher in Tafileh, while the lowest ratio was in C. sempervirens in both Amman and Shobak. In Shobak, C. sempervirens root and shoot dry weight was not significantly different even compared to the other species in the other locations.



34. C. ALAGESABOOPATHI* AND S. THAMILAZHAGAN [Allelopathic potential of Andrographis lineata Nees on germination and seedling growth of blackgram and greengram]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 182-185 (2010). Department of Botany Government Arts College (Autonomous), Salem-636 007 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : alagesaboopathi@rediffmail.com)

Abstract

The present investigation deals with the aqueous leaf and stem extracts of Andrographis lineata Nees which showed inhibitory effects on seed germination, plumule and radicle length of crop plants Vigna mungo Hepper var. T 9 (blackgram) and Vigna radiata Wilczek var. CO 6 (greengram). The results showed that the extracts brought about considerable inhibition in the germination of Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata seeds and in the growth of its radicle and plumule. The germination percentage in the aqueous extracts treated seeds decreased with the increase in the concentration of the extracts thus indicating that the degrees of inhibition were concentration dependent. It was apparent that A. lineata leaf extracts had more inhibitory effects on V. mungo seeds than those from the stem extracts. In A. lineata extract treated seeds, radicle growth was observed clearly at 48 h of the experiment, whereas radicle growth was recorded at 24 h experimental time in the leaf and stem extracts. Also in A. lineata extracts plumule growth occurred at 72 h of the experiment, whereas plumule growth was recorded at 48 h experimental time in the leaf and stem extracts treated seeds. These results revealed that the inhibitory effect might be due to the presence of these allelochemicals in the extracts of A. lineata.


35. Gauri, Ashok kumar Singh, R. P. Bhatt, Shailja Pant and Manjinder kaur Bedi [Effect of zinc on nodulation and growth parameters of Trifolium alexandrinum]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 186-191 (2010). Department of Microbiology Dolphin (PG) Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Dehradun (UK).

Abstract

Six zinc tolerant and one zinc sensitive Rhizobium strains were used to study the symbiotic performance with Trifolium alexandrinum seeds grown in nitrogen free agar slopes and pots containing acid washed river sand having different concentrations of zinc (0-100 mg/l). All tolerant isolates showed an increase in nodule number per plant, nodule fresh weight (mg/plant), shoot dry weight (g/plant), root dry weight (g/plant) and total weight (g/plant) of T. alexandrinum with the increase in zinc concentration upto 50 mg/l and after that all parameters declined with an increase in zinc concentration. Best symbiotic performance was observed in zinc tolerant strain RGM 59 at all levels of zinc concentrations. A decline in all parameters was observed in zinc sensitive isolate with an increase in concentration of zinc.



36. R. C. Bais, S. K. Burghate, P. A. Deshmukh and A. S. Bonde [Effect of foliar application of animal urine and panchagavya on auxin content and IAA oxidase enzyme activity in desi cotton]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 192-196 (2010). Department of Agricultural Botany Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India

Abstract

Investigation carried out at Cotton Research Unit, Dr. PDKV, Akola indicated that amongst all the treatments of different concentrations of animal urine and panchagavya, foliar application of 6% cow urine followed by panchagavya 6% was found to be superior in increasing the auxin content and reducing activity of IAA oxidase enzyme in shoot tip of cotton cv. AKDH-5 (pre-released). The cow urine 2, 4 and 6% was observed more or less significantly superior over buffalo urine and panchagavya 2, 4 and 6%. This information may be very useful because above results help in stimulating the better growth, increasing number of sympodial branches and ultimately for getting higher productivity to the cultivators.


37. Mallikarjun Kenganal, Hemavati Ranebennur, A. S. Byadgi and V. I. Benagi [Occurrence and detection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) type P on cucurbits in Maharashtra]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 197-202 (2010). Department of Plant Pathology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

 

Abstract

Cucurbits and papaya were surveyed in commercial papaya growing locations of Maharashtra state to know the incidence of PRSV type P and access their role in spread of the virus among themselves and to papaya orchards. Samples of 14 cucurbits and papaya were collected for diagnosis. Two hundred symptomatic, 54 symptomless cucurbits and 43 symptomatic and four symptomless papaya samples were collected. They were back inoculated on papaya by mechanical transmission and diagnosed by DAS ELISA using antiserum against PRSV type P. Cucurbits and papaya had severe virus symptoms of mosaic chlorosis, mottling and leaf distortion and in papaya shoestrings, ringspots on leaf and fruits were noticed during survey. Symptomatic and symptomless cucurbits of all the 14 types succeeded sap transmission except few samples. All symptomatic papaya samples were positive for mechanical sap transmission and two failed from symptomless. In serodiagnostic test, all symptomatic 14 cucurbits (98%) except four samples were found positive for presence of PRSV type P and out of symptomless more than 68% of the samples were positive. Papaya samples except one including symptomatic and symptomeless were positive (98%). The results of both the diagnostic tests show that cucurbits often succumb to infection by PRSV type P. Hence, they can act as alternate host for survival of virus in absence of papaya. It is better managed before spread, to cultivate cucurbit and papayas away from each other rather as intercrop or on farm bunds of papaya. The practice helps in management of virus in both cucurbits and papaya.

 


38. J. T. Onwughalu, J. K. Okoro* and M. E. Abo [Comparative assessment of three rice genotypes as donor materials for durable resistance to rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) infection on rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 203-207 (2010). Department of Crop and Environmental Protection University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria *(e-mail : j_okoro2002@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Moroberekan, Gigante and CG-14 known for their levels of resistance to rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) (Abo et al., 2001) were used in an experiment to evaluate the agronomic features and hence, the comparative suitability of these rice varieties as choice donor materials for durable resistance on rice cultivars against RYMV infection. The virus was introduced at an active tillering stage (40 days after planting) of the plants. Moroberekan and CG-14 were the resistant japonica types, whereas Gigante was a resistant indica type, and FARO 29 – a susceptible indica type was included as a check. The result of statistical analysis indicated significant mean effect (P=0.05) of rice variety treatment on all measured growth parameters as well as, a highly significant effect (P=0.01) of virus treatment means on plant height (cm) at maturity. Rice variety and virus treatment means produced effect that was significant (P=0.05) on all measured yield parameters and also indicated an interaction effect of the two factors on plant height (cm), the number of grains per panicle as well as per cent spikelets fertility per plant. Moroberekan recorded the highest grain weight value (28.48 g), which was significantly (P=0.05) higher than mean values recorded by other rice varieties. However, based on the total number of grains per plant at harvest as well as per cent spikelets fertility per plant, the best rice varieties included the indica type – Gigante, which recorded mean number of grain of 80.83 per panicle at harvest.

 


39. Poonam Verma and K. K. Patel [Incidence and detection of virus infecting chilli (Capsicum annum L.) plants in eastern Uttar Pradesh]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 208-210 (2010). AKAPG College, Varanasi (U. P.), India

Abstract

Chilli veinal mottle virus is the most important virus which causes yield losses in chilli cultivation. The virus disease of chilli causing dark green mottling and distortion symptoms on leaves was observed in chilli growing areas of eastern U. P. during survey in 2008 and 2009. This virus is transmitted by aphids and by sap inoculation. This virus was identified on the basis of symtomatology, host range, transmission, physical properties, electron microscopy and serology. The thermal inactivation point was between 60°-65°C, dilution end point 10-3 to 10-5 and longevity in vitro between 2-4 days at room temperature.



40. M. Ghosal, N. Chaudhuri and S. K. Senapati [Nutrient status of tissues of muga silkworm in terai region of West Bengal]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 211-216 (2010). Department of Agricultural Entomology Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736 165 (West Bengal), India

Abstract

The level of nutritional contents in different tissues of larval body varied over seasons. Protein, the principal constituent of silk, was recorded at higher level during May-June (24.05 mg/g in salivary gland followed by 22.52 mg/g in midgut, 11.69 mg/g in fat bodies and 14.31 mg/g in haemolymph) followed by March-April (14.34 mg/g in salivary gland followed by 13.66 mg/g in midgut and 11.67 mg/g in fat bodies). These two seasons are considered the commercial cocoon production seasons in terai region of West Bengal. The weather conditions during the seasons were also at par with the requirement of insect for usual growth and development. Carbohydrate content was found moderate in these two commercial cocoon production seasons but higher during October-November (32.61 mg/g in salivary gland and 20.01 mg/g in midgut) and during December-February (55.65 mg/g in fat bodies) and during September-October (100.37 mg/g in haemolymph), the seasons of egg production. On the contrary, lipid content was recorded higher during December-February i. e. in winter (17.75% in fatbody, 15.17% in midgut and 12.00% in salivary gland) for maintenance of body from store/reserve food.



41. A. Thanga Hemavathy and K. Balaji [In vitro propagation studies in cardamom]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 217-220 (2010). Department of Agricultural Entomology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

Tissue culture technology is used for selection and rapid multiplication of elite clones of cardamom. In India, the micro propagation technique has gained momentum to reoccupy the monopoly in cardamom production at global level. It is able to regenerate millions of copies to ensure in a decade of time with high yielding and disease free material. The present study was undertaken by using three varieties, namely, ICRI 2, TDK 4 and GG. Different explants of cardamom viz., shoot bud, shoot tip, rhizome and seed were inoculated in MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) supplemented with BAP, Ca pantothenete, IAA, 2,4-D and coconut water. The growth of multiple shoots was more vigorous on MS medium with BAP (1.50 mg/l) and Ca pantothenate 0.4 mg/l. The variety TDK 4 had good direct organogenesis reports compared to other varieties. The explant shoot bud had good efficiency for induction of callus in TDK 4 variety.



42. C. O. Olaniyi*, O. S. Adedeji, O. A. Aderinola, T. B. Olayeni and D. O. Okunlola [Performance characteristics and blood profiles of African catfish fed locust bean meal (Parkia biglobosa)]. Crop Res. 40 (1, 2 & 3) : 221-226 (2010). Department of Animal Production and Health Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria *(e-mail : dayomuyiwa@yahoo.com)

Abstract

A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance and blood profile of African catfish fed diets containing locust bean meal (Parkia biglobosa). The 12-week feeding trials involving 225 fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus in a completely randomized design were fed five diet containing 0, 25, 50 75 and 100% locust bean meal (CLBM). Results showed that significant at 0% level of LBM difference (P<0.05) was observed in the control and in one locust bean meal treatment in mean weight gain (5.83 as against 11.2 g) and feed intake (15.33 as against 29.55 g), respectively. However, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive value were not significantly affected (P>0.05). The cost effectiveness terms of cost per unit gain and cost of feed consumed per fish were significantly higher (P<0.05) in diet with 50% LBM. Carcass protein content significantly (P<0.05) increased with increased level of LBM except in 50% level. Values of hematological parameters were not consistent but significant differences were exhibited (P<0.05). The study demonstrated that 50% LBM could replace fish meal in the diets of African catfish without any adverse effect on the growth and blood profiles.

 
 


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