Volume 47, Number 1, 2 & 3 (January, March & May 2014)

By | July 14, 2014

1. Faqiz Adzmi, Halimi Mohd Saud, Mohd Razi Ismail, Radziah Othman, Sheikh Hasna Habib and Hossain Kausar [Effect of co-inoculation of nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in combination with chemical fertilizers on growth and development of rice]. Crop Res. 47(1, 2 & 3): 1-6 (2014). Laboratory of Food Crops Institute of Tropical Agriculture, University Putra, Serdang, Selangor, 43400, Malaysia*(e-mail : kausarsau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Inoculation effect of two biofertilizers with different doses of chemical fertilizers on growth and development of Malaysian commercial rice variety MR 219 was evaluated through a pot experiment at plant house, University Putra, Malaysia during June to October 2012. A total of eight treatments were used in this study which were T1–Control, T2–NPK fertilizer, T3–Bacillus sphaericus (UPMB 10), T4–Pseudomonas spp., T5–Half strength of NPK fertilizer+UPMB 10, T6–Half strength of NPK fertilizer+Pseudomonasspp., T7–NPK fertilizer+UPMB 10+Pseudomonas and T8–Half strength of NPK fertilizer+UPMB 10+Pseudomonas spp. Treatment T8 which was a combination of half strength of chemical fertilizer and biofertilizer emerged as the most promising strategy boost up growth parameters of rice variety MR 219. Both of these bioinoculants markedly enhanced rice shoot biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, N, P, K, Ca and Mg content. The present study indicated that biofertilizer was beneficial to rice cultivation under limited inorganic fertilizer inputs. Thus, the bacterial strains, B. sphaericus and Pseudomonas spp. could be used as bioenhancer for growth of MR 219 rice variety as well as a 50% chemical fertilizer could be saved by the utilization of these strains.

2. A. K. Singh, R. Nandan AND P. K. Singh [Genetic variability and association analysis in rice germplasm under rainfed conditions]. Crop Res. 47(1, 2 & 3): 7-11 (2014). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India* (e-mail : pksbhu@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Thirty-eight rice germplasm accessions were evaluated for 12 traits to assess the genetic variability, heritability and character association for grain yield with yield attributing traits. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant difference among the germplasm accessions for the traits studied indicating that a large amount of variability was present in a set of material. The magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher to corresponding genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits.The highest value of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was observed for total grains per panicle followed by grain yield per plot and test weight. High heritability associated with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was found in the traits test weight and grain yield per plot. The genotypic correlation coefficient was found to be higher than phenotypic correlation coefficient indicating a strong inherent association for grain yield per plot and other traits. Days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, total number of tillers per plant, total grains per panicle, spikelet fertility and biological yield per plot showed strong positive and significant association with grain yield per plot both at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Therefore, selection based on these traits will be effective in improving the grain yield in rice under rainfed conditions.

3. Neelam Bhardwaj, Tanu Saroch, Parveen Sharma and J. P. Saini [Estimates of variability and correlations for quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)under organic vis-a-vis inorganic input conditions]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 12-16 (2014). Department of Organic Agriculture CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India*(e-mail : raghumic2@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted in the Organic Farm of the Department of Organic Agriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur during the year 2010-11 on 26 genotypes of wheat grown under two environments i. e. organic input conditions and non-organic input conditions to find out the most important traits for selection under organic input condition. Grain filling period, grain weight/spike, grains/spike, plant height, biological yield and harvest index showed high heritability and high genetic advance under organic input conditions. Significant positive correlations of seed yield with tillers/plant, grains/spike, biological yield and harvest index were observed under organic conditions. Traits like spikes/plant and 1000-grain weight which showed positive association with yield under non-organic input conditions were found to be non-significant under organic conditions.

4. D. Shrivastava, N. Verma, S. K. Viswakarma and G. Jha [Effect of clodinafop-propargyl on soil microflora of wheat]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 17-20 (2014). Department of Agronomy Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur-482 004 (Madhya Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009-10 at Jabalpur to assess the effect of clodinafop-propargyl on soil microorganism. The overall influence of different treatments a colony forming unit of Azotobacter at different stages of crop growth, no definite trend could be observed but the population was maximum at harvest stage of the crop. Total bacterial counts also did not reflect any definite trends, whereas a similar trend was found in fungi as well as actinomycetes.

5. J. P. Srivastava, G. D. Kushwaha and D. N. Shukla [[Black point disease of wheat and its implications on seed quality]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 21-23 (2014). Department of Seed Science & Technology N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj-224 229, Faizabad (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Black point of wheat is a disease complex resulting from the attack of various field fungi. Various types of symptoms appear on affected wheat kernels. The symptoms of various types of discolourations of affected kernels may be visualized. The prominent discolouration occurs when the fungal complex attack at milking stage of the crop or other successive phases of crop maturity (dough, physiological maturity and harvesting). High relative humidity, intermittent rains and relatively higher temperature at anthesis favour the expression of symptoms. It has also been observed that delayed irrigation practised to utilize the residual soil moisture facilitates the infection and symptom expression. It was also recorded that consequent upon the late season/delayed irrigation coupled with high wind velocity, lodging took place resulting in increase in severity of black point disease. The fungi isolated from discoloured kernels were Drechslera sorokiniana (Cochliobolus sativus), Alternaria tenuis (Alternaria alternata) and exceptionally the Curvularia lunata. Single spray of propiconazole @ 0.10% at boot leaf stage, which was done primarily for the management of Karnal bunt of wheat, proved most effective against both the diseases i. e. Karnal bunt as well as black point compared to unsprayed plot.

6. A. S. PATIL, H. K. PATEL* AND N. P. CHAUHAN [Yield, quality and monetary returns of summer pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) as influenced by integrated nitrogen management and sowing methods]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 24-28 (2014). Department of Agronomy Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : hirenubi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out at College Agronomy Farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat on loamy sand soil during summer season of 2012 to study the effect of integrated nitrogen management under different crop establishment methods of pearl millet under middle Gujarat conditions. Data revealed that among different crop establishment methods sowing of pearl millet by using pair row transplanting method recorded significantly higher number of effective tillers/m row length, length of earhead and significantly the highest dry matter accumulation/plant, grain and straw yields and among different nitrogen management treatments application of 50% RDN+25% FYM+25% castor cake+Azospirillum+PSB produced significantly higher values of number of effective tillers/metre row length, length of earhead and straw yield and significantly the highest dry matter accumulation and grain yield of pearl millet. Further soil analysis data revealed that application of 50% RDN+25% FYM+25% castor cake+Azospirillum+PSB recorded significantly the highest protein content in grain (%), organic carbon content (%), total nitrogen (%) and significantly higher available phosphorus and available potash in soil. From economic point of view, sowing of pearl millet by pair row transplanting method and application of 50% RDN+25% FYM+25% castor cake+Azospirillum+PSB recorded significantly higher net realization of Rs. 34359 and 36026/ha, respectively.

7. V. THIMMAPPA, M. SRINIVASA REDDY, U. VIJAYA BHASKAR REDDY AND S. TIRUMALA REDDY [Effect of nitrogen levels and plant densities on growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of kharif maize (Zea mays L.)]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 29-32 (2014). Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 29-32 (2014). Department of Agronomy Agricultural College (ANGRAU), Mahanandi-518 502 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2012 to study the influence of different levels of nitrogen and plant densities on growth and yield parameters of maize. Taller plants were produced by 200 kg N/ha which was statistically at par with the other two treatments of 150 and 250 kg N/ha. Progressive increase in LAI and dry matter production (g/m2sup) and yield attributes like cob weight (9492 kg/ha), cob girth (14.90 cm), number of rows per cob (14.21), number of grains per row (34.38) and 100-grain weight (30.61 g) was observed due to increased nitrogen levels from 150 to 250 kg/ha and highest cob length (17.82 cm) and shelling percentage (64.79%) were recorded at 200 kg N/ha. Application of 250 kg N/ha produced higher grain and stover yields and also higher net returns than other levels (150 and 200 kg N/ha) but net returns were comparable with 200 kg N/ha. Growth parameters were inconsistent with different spacings. The highest plant height was recorded at a spacing of 75 x 20 cm, maximum leaf area index was recorded at 45 x 20 cm and dry matter production was higher at 60 x 15 cm. However, with regard to yield parameters higher cob yield, grain yield and net returns were obtained at a spacing of 75 x 15 cm.

8. Muhammet KARASAHIN* [Effects of different irrigation methods and plant densities on nitrogen and irrigation water use efficiency in silage corn production]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 33-39 (2014). Department of Plant and Animal Production Karabuk University, Eskipazar Vocational School, Karabuk, Turkey *(e-mail : mkarasahin@karabuk.edu.tr)a

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, sub-soil drip and sub-soil capillary) and different plant densities (102040, 119040 and 142850 plants/ha) on the nitrogen and irrigation water use efficiency of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar (Zea mays L. indentata S.) in the years 2011 and 2012 under the ecological conditions of Eskipazar-Karabuk. In both the research years, the plant densities had a statistically significant impact on the dry matter yields. The highest dry matter yields were obtained from the D3 plant densities. In second research year, irrigation treatments were statistically significant on nitrogen uptake efficiency and the highest nitrogen uptake efficiency values were obtained from I3irrigation treatments. In second research year, density treatments were statistically significant on nitrogen use and uptake efficiency. The highest nitrogen uptake and use efficiency values were obtained from D1 plant density treatments. In this study, plants did not encounter water and nitrogen deficiency in the growing seasons due to plant density basis nitrogen application and good irrigation management, which created the appropriate conditions to nitrogen and water use efficiency in all treatments.

9. M. SANGEETHA AND A. K. MANI [Effect of different pre-soaking treatments on germination and seedling growth of mango (Mangifera indica L.)]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 40-42 (2014). Regional Research Station, Paiyur-635 112, Krishnagiri District (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) is an important tropical fruit crop grown in India. It is highly cross-pollinated crop, hence, enormous variation in the seedlings raised from the fruits of single tree. Pot experiments were conducted during 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study the influence of pre-soaking treatments on germination and growth of seedling. Mango stones of variety ‘Bangalora’ were used for raising the seedling. The stones were washed thoroughly and the pericarp was removed (husking) to obtain the seed. The seeds were dipped in water and the floating seeds were discarded and only those which settled in the bottom were selected. The seeds were sown in mud pots after soaking for 24 h as per the treatments. The experiment included seven treatments viz., T1–Control (seed as such), T2–Seed soaking in water, T3–Seed soaking in cowdung slurry, T4–Seed soaking in KH2PO4 @ 1%, T5–Seed soaking in KNO3 @ 1%, T6–Seed soaking in KCl @ 1% and T7–Seed soaking in sucrose @ 1%, laid out in a completely randomized design with three replications. The observation on germination percentage was recorded daily up to 30 days after sowing and the data on seedling height, number of leaves per seedling, stem girth and root length were recorded at 90 days after sowing. The results showed that soaking of seeds with sucrose solution @ 1% improved seedling germination percentage and subsequent seedling growth of mango.

10. Harsimrat K. Bons and Kulbir Singh [Influence of brassinolides on growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 43-45 (2014). PAU Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Samrala, District Ludhiana (Punjab), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during summer seasons of 2009 and 2010 at Vegetable Research Farm, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana and during 2009 at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Samrala, Ludhiana in randomized block design with three replications to study the effect of brassinolides on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under field conditions in order to maximize farm income. In this experiment, Golden and Punjab Naveen varieties were treated with brassinolides @ 500 ppm and water along (control). First spray was done at the time of 50% flowering and second at the interval of 10 days after first spray. The data on vine length, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight and fruit yield were recorded. The results revealed that these growth and yield traits were significantly affected by application of brassinolides.

11. L. RUSHIMA, A. S. BRAR, J. S. DEOL AND GAGANDEEP SINGH [Seed yield, oil yield and water use of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars as influenced by sowing time and irrigation schedules]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 46-49 (2014). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2011-12 to study the influence of sowing time and irrigation schedule on seed yield, oil yield and water use of raya cultivars. The experiment was laid out in split plot design, keeping combinations of three dates of sowing (Oct. 30, Nov. 15 and Nov. 30) and two cultivars (RLC 1 and RLM 619) in main plots and four irrigation schedules (40, 60, 80 CPE and two irrigations at four weeks after sowing and at flowering) in sub-plots with three replications. Raya sown on October 30 recorded significantly higher primary and secondary branches than November 15 and November 30 sown crops. The yield attributes, seed and oil yield were also significantly higher in October 30 sown crop than November 15 and November 30. Similar trends were observed for water use and water use efficiency (WUE). Both the cultivars did not differ significantly for yield attributes and seed yield. However, cultivar RLM 619 recorded significantly higher oil content and oil yield than cultivar RLC 1. Crop raised with irrigation scheduling at 40 CPE produced maximum secondary branches which were at par with 60 CPE, but significantly higher than 80 CPE and two irrigation schedules. Similarly, yield attributes, seed and oil yield were the highest with irrigation scheduling at 40 CPE, which were at par with 60 CPE but significantly higher than 80 CPE and two irrigations. Water use was higher with irrigation scheduling at 40 CPE which decreased with increase in CPE, while reverse was true for WUE.

12. MEGHA R. PUTTAWAR, SHANTI R. PATIL AND D. J. JIOTODE [Combining ability analysis in mustard using drought tolerant testers]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 50-55 (2014). Agricultural Botany Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during 2009-11 at Agricultural Botany Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur to analyse the combining ability of the available genotypes with drought tolerant donors and identifying superior crosses for their exploitation in developing drought tolerant varieties of mustard. Thirty crosses obtained by crossing two testers (drought tolerant donors) with 15 lines along with their parents were evaluated in randomized complete block design replicated twice at the Agricultural Botany Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur. Observations on days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches/plant, number of siliquae/plant and yield/plant were recorded on five competitive randomly selected plants. Variation among the genotypes was highly significant for all the characters studied except days to maturity, thereby indicating a substantial amount of genetic variability. The significance of parents vs. crosses noticed for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches/plant, number of siliquae/plant and seed yield/plant satisfied the basic pre-requisite for comparing the expression of parents and crosses for different characters. Per se performance revealed the superiority of the parents GM-6, Bio-902, Seeta and ACN-9, for seed yield/plant and number of siliquae/plant. Among the crosses, GM-6 x Geeta, Ashirvad x RH-819, Sej-2 x Geeta and Seeta x Geeta exhibited superiority for seed yield/plant and number of siliquae/plant. Significant variation among lines was observed for most of the characters like days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of siliquae/plant, 1000-seed weight and seed yield/plant and also for line x tester interaction but except days to 50% flowering which allowed the estimation of general combining ability and specific combining ability effects for the above characters. While mean squares for testers were significant only for number of siliquae/plant. The parents Urvashi, JD-6 and Vardhan were identified as good general combiners. The crosses Sej-2 x Geeta and Ashirvad x RH-819 were identified as promising crosses based on mean and sca effects for yield and number of siliquae/plant which were identified for forwarding to next generation for making improvement in the seed yield along with drought tolerance by following simple selection method.

13. Mehrab Yadegari* [Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on growth, yield and essential oil content of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)]. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 56-65 (2014). Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran *(e-mail : mehrabyadegari@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Thyme, one of the most important spices, is used all over the world, and includes many species. One of the most important commercially grown species is Thymus vulgaris L., which is endemic to the Mediterranean area. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of foliar Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ applications on shoot dry and fresh matter, root dry and fresh matter, height, number of stems per plant, essence percentage, carvacrol and thymol percentage in essential oil content of Thyme. Three treatments (0, 200 and 400 ppm) were used, and the experiment was repeated at two growth periods (2012 and 2013) in south-western Iran in a sandy clay soil. Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ applications affected plant height as the plants were shorter in the control treatment. Also, Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ applications increased the number of stems per plant, shoot dry and fresh matter, root dry and fresh matter, height, number of stems per plant and essence percentage. Applying 200 ppm of Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ made significant produced essence level in this investigation that was related to carvacrol production and the minimum one was related to thymol by a control treatment that was in similar group by concentration of 400 ppm of Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+. Dry matter yield also increased about 100% with Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ during the 2-year study. In addition, Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ applications affected the essential oil yield. These results showed that applications of micronutrients could affect the growth and yield of Thyme, especially when the plant was grown in alkaline soils, and in this the 200 ppm concentrations of micronutrients were the best. Perhaps, the physiological basis of this effect was immobilization of micronutrients in this soil.

14. Fan Xifeng, Zhu Yi, Hou Xincun and Wu Juying* [Effects of water-retaining agent on soil moisture and switchgrass growth].. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 66-72 (2014). Beijing Research and Development Center for Grass and Environment Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (North), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing-100 097,China (Note : The first two authors contributed equally to this paper) *(e-mail : wujuying1@263.net)

ABSTRACT

Potted soil housed in greenhouse conditions was used as a medium to investigate the effects of the Tiantong water-retaining agent on soil moisture content, soil moisture evapotranspiration and plant agronomic traits as well as the overall dry matter accumulation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) growths. Results demonstrated that application of a water-retaining agent equivalent to 0.35% of total soil mass increased the moisture of coarse-sand soil up to 10%, reduced the soil moisture evapotranspiration up to 30%, and significantly increased plant height, tiller number, total leaf number, and dry matter accumulation (40% increase) in switchgrass specimens. These findings suggest that transplanted switchgrass in abandoned sand excavation sites containing primarily coarse-sand soil, typical of marginal lands available for agricultural use in the northern regions of China, may exhibit improved growth rates upon the addition of a water-retaining agent, such as Tiantong, to the soil. This finding has widespread implications for the bioenergy industry, suggesting that many marginal lands may be efficiently converted into renewable bioenergy resources

15. Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh* [Study of Colletotrichum graminicola as a bioherbicide for biological control of Echinochloa species].. Crop Res. 47 (1, 2 & 3) : 73-76 (2014). Department of Plant Pathology Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University Rasht Branch, Rasht, Guilan Province 41335-3516, Iran *(e-mail : ssafarimotlagh@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

In this research during 2011-12, Colletotrichum graminicola was isolated from Echinochloa spp. and studied as a biological agent for control. At first, reactions of five rice cultivars to C. graminicola were evaluated. Then, C. graminicola was inoculated on Echinochloa spp. Results indicated that the disease rating caused by this fungus in the weed was more than that in the studied rice cultivars. Also, the fungus had a significant effect on the height, fresh weight and dry weight of Echinochloa spp. and reduced them. So, C. graminicola is not recommended as a probable mycoherbicide for biological control of Echinochloa spp. in paddy fields.

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